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R.P. Bracy, R.L. Parish, and J.E. McCoy

Difficulty in obtaining and maintaining an adequate plant stand in directly seeded cabbage led to the investigation of possible causes of plant loss. A series of experiments was conducted evaluating the effect of six rates (0, 0.28, 0.41, 0.56, 0.84, 1.12 kg·ha–1 a.i.) of trifluralin on cabbage stand. The treated area was irrigated immediately after planting; one-half of the area received overhead irrigation and the other half received furrow irrigation. Activated charcoal as a slurry was sprayed at the rate of 336 kg·ha–1 directly into the seed furrow on half the plots receiving the higher trifluralin rates. Plots treated with trifluralin at rates of 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg·ha–1 had lower plant populations if activated charcoal was not applied. Grass, broadleaf, and sedge weed control was as effective with 0.28 and 0.41 kg·ha–1 of trifluralin as it was at the higher rates of 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg·ha–1. Plant population was not affected as much by trifluralin rates when furrow irrigation was used as compared with overhead irrigation. Producers should be careful not to exceed 0.41 kg·ha–1 of trifluralin on cabbage directly seeded into light-textured soils, because reduced stands can be expected.

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Thomas J. Tworkoski, Michael E. Engle, and Peter T. Kujawski

. We thank Jerry Dunaway and Jose Solar for their ideas and assistance in measuring trifluralin residues. Thanks to Reemay, Inc., for their financial support. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under

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J.R. Smart, D.J. Makus, and R.J. Coleman

Field studies were conducted to determine the efficiency and crop safety of trifluralin [2,6-dinitro-N, N-dipropyl-4(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine] in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), and dandelion greens (Taraxacum officinale Weber) when applied preplant-incorporated at 0.56 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha. Visual injury evaluations, crop fresh and dry weight at maturity, and leaf area were used to determine adverse effects of trifluralin on each crop when compared to an untreated control. Dandelion greens had a 47% and 49% reduction in leaf area when treated with trifluralin at 0.56 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha when compared to the untreated weed-free dandelion treatment. Coriander and dill showed no visual crop phytotoxicity and no adverse effects on crop growth, fresh and dry weight yield, or leaf area when treated with trifluralin. Trifluralin, when used in combination with early season mechanical cultivation, can provide selective weed control of many of the most common winter annual weeds in south Texas while exhibiting a high level of crop tolerance for coriander and dill.

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Steven E. Newman and Jesse R. Quarrels

Many nurseries are using the pot-in-pot (PNP) system to grow trees in containers. This system protects the roots from temperature extremes and prevents tipping. PNP is not without problems, trees with vigorous roots may escape the container and root into the external soil making harvest difficult. PNP has no effect on root circling. Our objective was to determine if a polypropylene fabric disk treated with either trifluralin or copper placed in the bottom of a container would prevent root circling. Cercis canadensis and Quercus shumardii seedlings were grown in 19 liter polyethylene containers with eight root control treatments, which included trifluralin or copper impregnated polypropylene fabric disks placed in the bottom of the containers. Ttifluralin treatments, BioBarrier and trifluralin impregnated fabric, had few roots in the bottom of the containers. Of the copper treatments, Spinout® impregnated fabric was the only copper treatment that had any effect on root development in the bottom of the containers.

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Grace M. Pietsch and Neil O. Anderson

Gaura lindheimeri is a diploid herbaceous perennial species native to Texas and Louisiana and winter hardy only to USDA hardiness zone 5. A potential source of winter hardiness is G. coccinea Pursh., a polyploid widely distributed in North America; of particular interest are autotetraploid populations of G. coccinea from Minnesota. To facilitate interspecific hybridization, a tetraploid G. lindheimeri would be advantageous. Two G. lindheimeri genotypes, MN selections 443-1 and 01G-02, were treated with two different antimitotic agents at two concentrations, trifluralin—15 and 30 μm and colchicine—0.25 and 1.25 mm, along with appropriate controls, to determine the frequency of chromosome doubling. Two-node stem sections were treated for 12, 24, or 48 h and then rooted and grown to flowering. Pollen diameter was measured as an indicator of chromosome doubling in cell layer LII, and morphologic characteristics (days to flower, flower size, plant height, inflorescence height, and plant width) were recorded for all plants. Chromosome doubling was not observed in any plant treated with trifluralin. Based on pollen diameter, genotype 443–1 only had chromosome doubling in the colchicine 1.25 mm concentration when treated for 12 h. All durations of colchicine at 1.25 mm were successful for genotype 01G-02 as well as a small percent treated with colchicine at 0.25 mm treated for 48 h. Autotetraploid plants (2n = 4x = 28) had larger flowers in both genotypes, and autotetraploid derivatives of genotype 01G-02 flowered earlier and were taller than diploid plants. Conformation changes from three-lobed to four-lobed pollen grains were observed when pollen diameter approached that expected of 2n pollen. Visual screening of pollen for conformation changes can quickly determine if chromosome doubling in cell layer LII has occurred. With the autotetraploid G. lindheimeri derived from colchicine application, crosses can be performed with autotetraploid G. coccinea to introgress cold tolerance. Additional breeding can also be done at the tetraploid level to develop new autotetraploid cultivars of G. lindheimeri.

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Kassim Al-Khatib, Carl Libbey, and Sorkel Kadir

Broadleaf weed control with trifluralin, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, clopyralid, pyridate, and metolachlor in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) grown for seed was evaluated. No single herbicide controlled broadleaf weeds adequately, with the exception of pendimethalin at 1.92 and 3.84 kg a.i./ha. However, combinations of trifluralin + oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin + clopyralid, and oxyfluorfen + pyridate effectively controlled weeds and did not reduce seed yields. Herbicides caused slight to moderate injury symptoms to cabbage plants, with the greatest injury caused by pendimethalin and the least by trifluralin and metolachlor. However, plants recovered from these symptoms and appeared normal at the bud stage. None of the herbicides applied alone or in combinations adversely affected cabbage population, height, or flowering date. Chemical names used: 3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (clopyralid); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); O-(6-chloro-3-phenyl-4-pyridazin-yl)S-octylcarbonothioate (pyridate); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).

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David Staats, David Hillock, and James E. Klett

Five preemergence herbicides were applied to seven herbaceous perennials to evaluate weed control efficacy and phytotoxicity. Different species were used each year. The species used during 1992 were coneflower (Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldstrum'), common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L. `Excelsior'), Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum ×superbum Bergmans `Alaska'), Stokes's aster (Stokesia laevis Greene `Blue Danube'), and avens (Geum Quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw'). The species used in 1993 were woolly yarrow (Achillea tomentosa L.) and woolly thyme (Thymus pseudolanuginosus Ronn.). The herbicides and rates were napropamide (Devrinol 10G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; metolachlor (Pennant 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; oxyfluorfen+oryzalin (Rout 3G) at 3 and 12 lb a.i./acre; trifluralin (Treflan 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; and oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre. Plants were grown in no. 1 containers and weed seeds were sown onto the substrate surface. Two control treatments, no herbicides but with weeds (weedy control), and no weeds or herbicides (weed-free control) also were evaluated. Weed control was effective and similar for all herbicides tested. Napropamide at 8 lb a.i./acre caused stunting in foxglove (20% to 45% less growth compared to weed-free control). Oxyfluorfen + oryzlain at 12 lb a.i./acre caused severe phytotoxicity (≈80% to 95% of plant injured) and stunted the growth (70% to 80% less growth, sometimes plant death) of woolly yarrow. Woolly thyme was stunted by all herbicides when applied at the recommended rates (42% to 97% less growth compared to control) except for oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen + oryzlain. Woolly thyme appeared to be more susceptible to phytotoxicity due to its less-vigorous growth habit and shallow, adventitious roots that were in contact with the herbicide.

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Brian A. Kahn and Raymond Joe Schatzer

The herbicides paraquat, trifluralin, and metolachlor were compared for efficacy of weed control in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] with and without cultivation as a supplemental strategy. Herbicides also were compared against a no cultivation-no herbicide treatment (control) and against cultivation without an herbicide. Cultivation had no significant effect on seed yield, biological yield, or harvest index of cowpea. Paraquat, applied before seeding but after emergence of weeds, was ineffective for weed control and usually did not change cowpea yield from that obtained without an herbicide. Trifluralin and metolachlor more than tripled cowpea seed yield compared with that obtained without an herbicide in 1988, when potential weed pressure was 886 g·m-2 (dry weight). The main effects of trifluralin and metolachlor were not significant for cowpea seed yield in 1989, when potential weed pressure was 319 g·m-2 (dry weight). However, in 1989, these two herbicides still increased cowpea seed yield compared with that of the control and increased net farm income by more than $300/ha compared with the income obtained from the control. Chemical names used 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4' -bipyridlnium salts (paraquat); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine (trifluralin); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6 -methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-l-methylethyl) acetamide (metolachlor).

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J. Roger Harris, Alex X. Niemiera, Robert D. Wright, and Charles H. Parkerson

Three experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using Biobarrier, a landscape fabric with trifluralin herbicide-impregnated nodules, of various sizes to prevent root escape of trees from the drainage holes of 56-liter containers in below-ground pot-in-pot (P&P) and above-ground Keeper Upper (KU) nursery production systems. In addition, side holes or slits were cut in some container walls to test the effect of Biobarrier on the prevention of circling roots. In Expt. 1 (P&P), Betula nigra L. `Heritage' (river birch) trees with no Biobarrier had root ratings for roots escaped through drainage holes that indicated a 5-fold increase in numbers of roots than for treatments containing Biobarrier. All Biobarrier treatments reduced root escape and resulted in commercially acceptable control. In Expt. 2 (KU), control and the Biobarrier treatment river birch trees (30 nodules) had commercially unacceptable root escape. In Expt. 3 (P&P), control and 10-nodule treatment Prunus × yedoensis Matsum. (Yoshino cherry) trees had commercially unacceptable root escape, but treatments containing 20 and 40 nodules resulted in commercially acceptable control. Biobarrier did not limit shoot growth in any of the experiments. The results of these experiments indicate that Biobarrier did not prevent circling roots, but sheets containing at least 8 or 20 nodules of trifluralin acceptably prevented root escape from drainage holes in the pot-in-pot production of 56-liter container river birch trees and Yoshino cherry trees, respectively.

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Joseph C. Neal and Andrew F. Senesac

Preemergent herbicide phytotoxicity was evaluated for six species of container-grown ornamental grasses: beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), pampas grass [Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn.], tufted hair grass [Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauvois.], blue fescue [Festuca ovina cv. glauca (Lam.) W.D.J. Koch], fountain grass [Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.], and ribbon grass (Phalaris arundinacea cv. picta L.). Herbicides included isoxaben, metolachlor, MON 15151, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin; the granular combination products of benefin plus trifluralin; and oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin. Metolachlor, granular or spray, and oryzalin severely injured all species tested, except beachgrass, which was not injured by metolachlor granule. Napropamide injured pampas grass, fountain, grass, blue fescue, and tufted hair grass, but was safe on ribbon grass and beach grass. Pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin; MON 15151, isoxaben, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, and benefin plus trifluralin were safe on all six species. Chemical names used: N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine(benefin);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben);2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyll-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(MON 15151);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitro-benzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).