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D.A. Rosenberger, T.L. Robinson, J.R. Schupp, C.A. Engle-Ahlers, and F.W. Meyer

Effects of three sterol-demethylation inhibiting (DMI) fungicides and a contact fungicide were compared over two years at each of two locations to determine if fungicide treatments had differential effects on productivity, fruit size and shape, or gross returns for `Empire' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). Treatments were applied four to five times per year during the primary apple scab season. Effects of treatments were assessed by comparing fruit set efficiencies, number of fruit per tree, total harvested fruit weight, and fruit length: diameter ratios at harvest. No significant differences were noted among individual treatments in any of the four trials. However, when treatments were contrasted by grouping individual treatments, significantly larger fruit size was noted for triflumizole treatments vs. combined fenarimol and myclobutanil treatments in one of the four trials and for captan or mancozeb compared to fenarimol and myclobutanil treatments in two trials. None of the DMI fungicides compared in these trials had any consistent adverse affect on fruit size, total yield, or estimated gross return per hectare. We conclude that the plant growth regulator effects of DMI fungicides are inconsistent and are unlikely to have significant economic impact on commercial apple production.

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Colleen Kennedy, Tomas N. Hasing, Natalia A. Peres, and Vance M. Whitaker

-spectrum fungicides such as myclobutanil and triflumizole have limited curative actions and are applied at lower rates. However, as a result of the relative ease with which powdery mildews develop resistance to systemic fungicides ( Hollomon and Wheeler, 2002 ), it is

Open access

Shital Poudyal and Bert M. Cregg

fungal diseases, they may also be phytotoxic to sensitive plants. ( Chase, 2010 ; Getter, 2015 ). Fungicides may contain inorganic ingredients, such as copper and sulfur, or organic compounds, like metalaxyl or triflumizole. Both inorganic and organic

Open access

Janel L. Ohletz and J. Brent Loy

), myclobutanil (Kingtai Chemicals, Binijang, China) and triflumizole (Uniroyal Chemical Co., Bethany, CT) at KRF and WRF on 26 Aug. for suppressing a severe infection of downy mildew ( Pseudoperonospora cubensis ). Weed control was performed by mechanical and