Continuous postharvest treatment of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Elliot's White) with 50 or 100 mM aminotriazole significantly extended useful vase life relative to flowers held in distilled H2O. No morphological changes symptomatic of floral senescence appeared in treated flowers until 12 to 15 days after harvest. The longevity of aminotriazole-treated flowers was extended to ≈18 days. The respiratory rate of aminotriazole-treated carnations was suppressed, and they exhibited no respiratory climacteric throughout the period of observation. The responsiveness of aminotriazole-treated flowers to exogenous ethylene appeared temporally regulated. Flowers treated with 50 mM aminotriazole for 2 days senesced in response to application of 10 μl exogenous ethylene/liter, whereas flowers treated for 24 days exhibited no morphological response to ethylene treatment. Chemical name used: 3-1H-amino-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl (aminotriazole).
Translocation patterns of the triazole plant growth retardants paclobutrazol, triapenthenol, and BAS111 were found to be similar when applied as a trunk paint, soil drench, or in hydroponic systems. Chemical degradation studies indicate that the greatest percentage of parent compound is translocated to roots and mature leaves following soil drench and hydroponic treatments. Generally, residue levels of BAS111 were significantly lower than those of paclobutrazol and triapenthenol. Data from trunk paint applications indicate triapenthenol and BAS111, even at concentrations 5 times greater than paclobutrazol, are not as effective in controlling shoot growth. Significant negative correlations were found between shoot growth and foliar residue levels of paclobutrazol and triapenthenol 13 weeks after trunk paint application. Chemical names used: (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol); (E)-(RS)-1-cyclohexyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-en-3-ol (triapenthenol); 1-phenoxy-5,5-dimethyl-3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-hexan-5-ol] (BAS111); trimethylonylpolyethoxyethanol (WK surfactant).
Soil urease activity was measured in 3 different types of soils previously planted with soybeans, Glycine max L. Treatment of these soils with varying concentrations of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole showed inhibition of soil urease activity and a nematocidal effect even at doses sublethal for soybean plants. The plants treated with 3-amino-l,2,4-triazole showed a significant reduction in root nodulation.
Seven to 9 cvs each of Begonia semperflorens, Tagetes erecta, T. patula, and Petunia hybrida (grandiflora and multiflora types) were sown into seedling trays. One to 3 weeks after transplanting to flats (75 cm3/cell), paclobutrazol (PB) was sprayed at concentrations of 10 (begonia), 60 (marigold) or 100 (petunia) mg liter-1 at a 200 ml m-2 rate. Uniconazole (UC) was applied at one-half the PB concentrations. Plant height was measured before planting in the field May 17 and monthly through July. Species were analyzed separately and generally, there were no cultivar by triazole interactions. During the greenhouse phase, the triazoles controlled height of both marigold species compared to control, but in July the PB and UC treated plants were 100 and 91%, respectively, of control plant height. Flowering was delayed up to 4 days for UC treated T. patula plants. Height of triazole-treated petunias was 60-67% of control height during the greenhouse phase and 84-95% after 2 months in the field. Begonia height was reduced by triazoles during both phases. After 2 months in the field, PB and UC treated begonias were 72 and 44%, respectively, of control plant height.
Sim-type carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L., cv. Elliot's White) continuously treated with 50 mM or 100 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (amitrole) and held in the dark at 18°C did not exhibit a respiratory climacteric relative to dH2O-treated controls. No morphological changes symptomatic of floral senescence appeared in treated flowers until 12-15 days post-harvest. Other triazoles were not effective in prolonging senescence. Amitrole appears to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis by blocking the enzyme-mediated conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate. Ethylene action appears to be progressively inhibited in that flowers held in treatment solution for 2 d or less responded to application of 10 uL/L exogenous ethylene whereas flowers held 10 d or longer exhibited no response. Electrophoretic resolution of total crude extracts evidenced protein synthesis as well as degradation. Western analysis and total activity assays showed an amitrole concentration-specific inhibition of catalase activity.
Weed control with certain triazole or triazine herbicides on 4-year-old nonbearing pear trees (Pyrus communis L. cv. d’Anjou) resulted in markedly increased vigor, as evidenced by higher leaf N, larger trunk circumference, and greater subsequent yields of larger fruit than on trees where weed control was delayed until trees were 6 years old. Fruit from the latter treatment matured earlier and had more yellowness, softer flesh, higher soluble solids, and greater ethylene production than fruit from the vigorous trees. There was also evidence of increased N efficiency with the heterocyclic nitrogen herbicides.
Weed control and supplemental N markedly increased vigor and yield of pear trees (Pyrus communis L. cv. d’Anjou). Under conditions of low soil N, simazine enhanced N uptake. Consequently, simazine increased tree vigor, leaf N, shoot growth, and fruit size in the absence of supplemental N. Fruit from the control (no N or simazine) treatment was denser, yellower, higher in soluble solids, and had less scald and rot than fruit from trees treated with simazine but no N. Amitrole plus simazine (A + S) produced the highest yield in trees receiving no N, and resulted in as much tree vigor as the other treatments with supplemental N. The data suggest that certain triazine and triazole herbicides may partially substitute for N fertilizer on young ’d’Anjou’ trees.
Uniconazole (0.2 g a.i. per cm trunk diameter) was applied as a soil drench to 2-year-old potted macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche) trees, and reapplied yearly for 4 additional years. Uniconazole significantly reduced tree height and trunk diameter 1 year after initial treatment, and suppressed shoot extension for the duration of the study. It significantly increased flowering the second year after initial treatment, the first year that both the control and treated trees flowered. Subsequently, no differences in flowering were observed until the fifth year, when flowering was significantly less in treated trees, probably due to reduced shoot and trunk growth and tip dieback. Chemical name used: E-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,-4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazole-1-penten-3-ol) (uniconazole).
The effects of method of application and dose of paclobutrazol on the growth and flowering characteristics of Lupinus varius L. were studied. On 17 Dec., seeds were sown into 18-cm pots (three seeds per pot) filled with a mixture consisting of 2 peat: 1 river sand (by volume). On 25 Mar., when 5% of the plants had elongated first internodes, doses of paclobutrazol at 0 (control), 0.625, 1.250, and 2.500 mg a.i./plant were applied to plants as a foliar spray or media drench. The application of paclobutrazol led to a slight shortening of the time to flowering, especially when applied as a foliar spray. Plant height and internode length, length, and internode length of the main inflorescence significantly decreased with increased doses of paclobutrazol and this also happened with the number of branches per plant, branch length, and length and internode length of branch inflorescence. On the contrary, stem, main, and branch inflorescence diameters significantly increased with increased doses of paclobutrazol, whether applied as a foliar spray or media drench. However, drench applications of paclobutrazol were consistently more effective than foliar spray treatments on most of the growth characteristics investigated. Paclobutrazol, in particular when applied as a foliar spray, also increased the number of flowers on main and branch inflorescences relative to the control, but media drenched applications of paclobutrazol at doses of 1.250 and 2.500 mg a.i./plant resulted in consistent significant reductions in the number of flowers on branch inflorescences. Chemical name used: (±)-(R*,R*)-β[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Growth and flowering of Ixia hybrids as potted plants can be controlled environmentally by cool preplant storage of corms, regulation of greenhouse forcing temperatures, and application of a growth retardant. Paclobutrazol applied as a preplant corm soak, a postemergent drench, or a postemergent spray in combination with a 2- to 4-week preplant storage of corms at 7 °C, and an 18 °C day/10 °C night forcing temperature produced attractive and marketable plants. Chemical name used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol, Bonzi®).