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David M. Hunter and Martin F. Gadsby

Mature seedling trees of pear (Pyrus communis and interspecific hybrids), and fruiting trees of peach and nectarine (Prunus persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and pear were relocated during the dormant season using tree spades. During the growing season immediately following, some signs of drought stress were noticed but all trees grew well enough that they could be used as a source of budwood for limited propagation purposes. When drip irrigation was supplied, supplemented by overhead irrigation as required, normal growth and production resumed within two growing seasons of the move. Some tree losses (less than 10% of trees moved) were reported from one site where the soil type was Fox sand with very poor water holding capacity. These tree losses were attributed to an inadequate water supply to the root ball, even though the site was irrigated. Our experience has demonstrated the feasibility of relocating relatively large trees, which can be beneficial for germplasm conservation in a tree fruit breeding program. However, it is probably not economically viable to relocate such trees for commercial production.

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Thayne Montague and Lindsey Fox

. 2003, six planting holes were dug at original tree spacing with a 2.3-m hydraulic tree spade (Burkeen Manufacturing Co., Olive Branch, MS) and each hole was enlarged slightly. After holes were dug, six uniform trees were randomly selected and moved with

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Michael D. Marshall and Edward F. Gilman

Quercus virginiana trees were container-grown (CG) or field-grown (FG) to a mean trunk diameter of 9.4 cm (3.7 inches), transplanted into sandy soil, and established with frequent or periodic irrigation. Three years after transplanting, trees were harvested with a 1.5-m- (60-inch-) diameter tree spade. Root number and root cross-sectional area was evaluated at the periphery of the tree spade-dug root ball. Despite similar increases in trunk diameter, FG trees had greater root number and root cross-sectional area than CG trees. The increase in root cross-sectional area occurred for roots 5 to 20 mm in diameter at the 0- to 25-cm and 75- to 100-cm soil depths. Irrigation frequency after transplanting had no effect on root number in FG trees; however, root number in CG trees decreased without frequent irrigation.

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Bruce W. Wood, Jerry A. Payne, and Owen Jones

Overcrowding in young high-density pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] orchards has prompted a study of tree transplanting and evaluation of survival and tree performance. Shoot growth and nut production characteristics of 13-year-old `Stuart' and `Farley' pecan trees subjected to different stubbing and pruning treatments and then transplanted with a large tree spade indicated that transplants can survive with little or no pruning if moved when dormant. Shoot regrowth was proportional to the degree of pruning, and nut production was inversely proportional to the degree of pruning.

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C.S. Walsh, F.J. Allnutt, G.R Welsh, and R.H. Zimmerman

A planting to compare budded apple trees (M7a, Ml11) and tissue-culture-(TC) propagated trees was established in 1985. `Golden Delicious' and `Gala' trees were more productive than other cultivars and appeared better-suited to micropropagation. High cumulative yields per tree were harvested regardless of rootstock. `McIntosh', `Delicious', `Mutsu', and `MacSpur' trees were less precocious and more responsive to size-controlling rootstocks. To control tree size prior to bearing and minimize propagation time, trees were set as containerized transplants in a subsequent trial begun in 1986. Small containerized trees were set directly into the orchard. Setting trees in this manner has restricted tree size without delaying bearing. `Oregon Spur II' trees and `Empire' trees are now about 4 m tall. Trees have wide branch angles and numerous spurs. To further control tree size, trees were root-pruned with a Vermeer tree spade in 1991. In the year following, treated trees flowered profusely but did not fruit. Since then, cropping has controlled tree size. Ten years ex vitro `Granny Smith', `Oregon Spur II', and `Empire' trees can be managed without ladders. The goals of this study were: 1) to avoid “short life” problems and 2) develop a management scheme that would allow rapid entry of “bioengineered” cultivars into commercial orchards. Based on our research, selecting precocious cultivars or spur-type clones, in combination with transplanting 3 to 4 months ex vitro and root pruning show promise toward accomplishing these goals.

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Thayne Montague, Roger Kjelgren, and Larry Rupp

Gas exchange and growth of transplanted and nontransplanted, field-grown Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. `Schwedleri') and littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata Mill. `Greenspire') trees were investigated in an arid climate. In the spring of 1995, three trees of each species were moved with a tree spade to a new location within a field nursery and three nontransplanted trees were selected as controls. Predawn leaf water potential, morning-to-evening stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference, midday stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and growth data were collected over a 2-year period. After transplanting, weekly predawn leaf water potential indicated that transplanted trees were under greater water stress than were nontransplanted (control) trees. However, predawn leaf water potential of maple trees recovered to control levels 18 weeks after transplanting, while that of transplanted linden trees remained more negative than that of controls. In 1995, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates were lower throughout the day for transplanted trees. In 1996, gas exchange rates of transplanted maple trees recovered to near control levels while rates for transplanted linden trees did not. Sensitivity of stomata to leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference varied with species and with transplant treatment. Each year transplanted trees of both species had less apical growth than did control trees. Although gas exchange and apical growth of transplanted trees was reduced following transplanting, recovery of gas exchange to control rates differed with species.

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Amber Bonds and Thayne Montague

Balled in burlaped is a common method for moving large trees into landscapes and affects of transplanting on tree gas exchange and growth has been documented. Organic mulch provides many benefits and is often recommended for landscapes. Because little research has been conducted on affects organic mulch has on gas exchange and growth of transplanted and non-transplanted trees, this research investigated the effects transplanting and organic mulch have on gas exchange and growth of field grown red oak (Quercus shumardii) trees. In March 2003, 12 multi-trunked trees were selected from a tree farm near Lubbock, Texas, and six trees were dug using a tree spade and placed in their original location. Mulch at a depth of 10 cm was placed around the rootball of 3 transplanted and 3 nontransplanted trees and maintained at this depth the remainder of the experiment. Over the next three growing seasons predawn leaf water potential and midday stomatal conductance were measured on each tree every 1 to 3 weeks. At the end of every growing season shoot elongation, stem caliper and subsample leaf area were recorded. Our data indicates transplanting has a negative affect on gas exchange and growth of red oak. Each growing season gas exchange, shoot growth, and subsample leaf area were less for transplanted trees when compared to nontransplanted trees. Mulch also influenced gas exchange and growth of these trees. For nontransplanted trees with mulch, gas exchange and growth were reduced when compared to nonmulched, nontransplanted trees. For transplanted trees with mulch, predawn leaf water potential was less negative and subsample leaf area was greater when compared to transplanted trees with out mulch.

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D. Thayne Montague, Roger Kjelgren, and Larry Rupp

Gas exchange and growth of transplanted and non-transplanted Acer platanoides `Schwedleri' and Tilia cordata `Greenspire' trees were investigated. This study was conducted on trees planted in 1991 in a field nursery near Logan, Utah. In Spring 1995, three trees of each species were moved with a tree spade to a new location within the nursery and three non-transplanted trees were selected as controls. To simulate landscape conditions, all trees were watered at the time of planting and once per week during the growing season. Pre-dawn water potential, dawn-to-dusk stomatal conductance, mid-day photosynthesis, and growth data were collected over a 2-year period. Transplanted trees of each species were under more water stress (indicated by more negative pre-dawn water potential) than non-transplanted trees. However, pre-dawn water potential of transplanted A. platanoides recovered to near non-transplanted levels, while transplanted T. cordata did not. Dawn-to-dusk studies in 1995 and 1996 showed that stomatal conductance was lower throughout the day in transplanted trees. Once again, transplanted A. platanoides recovered to near non-transplanted levels, while transplanted T. cordata did not. A similar trend for mid-day photosynthesis was found for both species in 1995 and 1996. Transplanted trees of each species had less stem area increase, shoot elongation, and total leaf area than non-transplanted trees for each year. These data indicate that transplanted A. platanoides can recover to near non-transplant pre-dawn water potential and gas exchange levels earlier, and therefore establish faster, than transplanted T. cordata. However, after 2 years neither transplanted tree species were able to fully recover to non-transplanted growth rates.

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Lenny Wells

of trees planted to new orchard acreage or as interplants in existing orchards, 3) acreage planted, 4) new acreage established by transplanting mature trees with a tree spade, and 5) acreage of abandoned orchards brought back into production. Data

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Andrew K. Koeser, J. Ryan Stewart, Germán A. Bollero, Donald G. Bullock, and Daniel K. Struve

site. Individual trees served as experimental units. Control trees were not root-pruned or transplanted. Roots of trees assigned to the root-pruned treatment were severed with a hydraulic tree spade at 36 cm from the trunk to create a 72-cm