More peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees survived when planted in killed bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge `Paraguayan-22') sod growing between previous orchard tree rows (98%) than when planted in previous tree sites (81%) or in previous tree rows, but halfway between previous tree sites (79%). The previous orchard was removed Nov. 1986, and new trees were planted Feb. 1987. Surviving trees in the killed sod grew better than trees at the other two sites. Tilling the sites before planting did not affect nematode populations or tree survival and growth. Soaking the tree roots in a fenamiphos solution (1 g·liter-1) for 20 minutes before planting resulted in 79% tree survival vs. 93% survival for the nonsoaked trees. Fenamiphos sprayed under the trees at a rate of 11.2 kg·ha-1 during the spring and fall of the planting year did not change nematode populations, tree survival, or tree growth. The fenamiphos sprays reduced the increase in trunk cross-sectional area by 3 cm2 for trees in the sod. Other than leaf Zn concentration, which was low, concentrations of the elements were within the sufficiency range for Georgia for all treatments. Trees planted in the killed sod had an increased leaf K concentration and decreased leaf Mg concentration when compared with trees planted in the rows. Chemical name used: ethyl 3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl (1-methylethyl)phosphoramidate (fenamiphos).
Dean R. Evert and Paul F. Bertrand
Michelle M. Leinfelder and Ian A. Merwin
Apple replant disease (ARD) is a common problem typified by stunted growth and reduced yields in successive plantings of apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) in old orchard sites. ARD is attributed to biotic and abiotic factors; it is highly variable by sites, making it difficult to diagnose and overcome. In this experiment, we tested several methods of controlling ARD in a site previously planted to apple for >80 years. Our objective was to evaluate practical methods for ARD management. We compared three different experimental factors: four preplant soil treatments (PPSTs) (compost amendments, fumigation with Telone C-17, compost plus fumigation, and untreated soil); two replanting positions (in the old tree rows vs. old grass lanes); and five clonal rootstocks (`M.26', `M.7', `G.16', `CG.6210', and `G.30') during 4 years after replanting. The PPSTs had little effect on tree growth or yields during 4 years. Tree growth was affected by planting position, with trees planted in old grass lanes performing better than those in the old tree rows. Rootstocks were the most important factor in overcoming ARD; trees on `CG.6210' and `CG.30' grew better and yielded more than those on other rootstocks. Rootstock selection and row repositioning were more beneficial than soil fumigation or compost amendments in controlling ARD at this orchard.
Christopher Catanzaro and Enefiok Ekanem
A community tree planting project was conducted on the border of an urban Nashville, Tenn., neighborhood in Autumn 1994. In Jan. 2000, a written survey was developed to assess residents' perception of this site. Responses were gathered voluntarily and anonymously following a community meeting. Photographs of the site taken before the planting and again recently were available to respondents. Descriptions of the site's appearance prior to planting (turf only) included barren, boring, and lacking character. Comments regarding the site with trees suggest that trees provide cover and shade, are aesthetically pleasing, and represent positive human involvement. The average rating of the site's appearance prior to planting was “fair,” while its recent appearance was rated “very good.” Among three tree species included in the planting, Southern magnolia was strongly preferred over Canadian (Eastern) hemlock and Eastern redbud. Respondents valued magnolia's size, unique flowers and leaves, and evergreen nature. Most respondents did not use the area for any specific purpose. Despite that fact, respondents stated that they benefitted from the soothing aesthetics of the landscaped site, and that the site added value to the neighborhood and implied the qualities of belonging and leadership. An unintended outcome of the survey was its educational aspect. Nearly two-thirds of respondents did not live in the area when this site was landscaped, and most of them were not aware that the neighborhood had conducted the project. Nearly one-half of all respondents expressed interest in additional landscaping at this site or nearby high-visibility, high-use sites.
Thomas H. Spreen, Jean-Paul Baldwin, and Stephen H. Futch
). The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of the presence of HLB on new tree plantings in the Florida citrus industry. Sweet oranges are by far the most prevalent citrus scion grown in Florida, so the analysis is limited to sweet orange
Barbara A. Neal and Thomas Whitlow
There is broad consensus that we need a greater understanding of the interaction between trees and urban planting sites. This study was conducted to correlate annual increment growth with different street-tree planting specifications, with a primary emphasis on effective rooting volume of soil. The primary site of analysis was Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D. C., with four outlying sites chosen for comparison. From a cohort of 450, a randomly generated sample of 60 Pennsylvania Avenue willow oaks was chosen and increment cores taken at diameter breast height. A total of 60 cores was taken from willow oaks at the comparison sites. The annual incremental growth was measured using a microscope equipped with a computerized stage micrometer. The incremental growth per year in the nursery ranged between 6 and 8 mm and transplant shock generally lasted for 2 to 3 years, until growth regained or exceeded pretransplant levels.
G.H. Neilsen, J. Beulah, E.J. Hoguel, and R.S. Utkhede
Apple seedling height after 7 weeks of growth in greenhouse pots was compared with total first year shoot growth of `McIntosh' or `Delicious' apple trees [Malus domestica (Borkh.)] on M.26 rootstock for eight orchards and five soil treatments. The apple trees were replanted in old orchard sites with the same treatments applied in the planting hole as were tested in the greenhouse. The pot test successfully predicted treatments that increased first year shoot growth in 23 of 30 opportunities. However, a less precise relationship (R2 = 0.38) existed between total first year shoot growth (Y) of `Summerland Red McIntosh' on M.26 rootstock and seedling height (X).
W. Todd Watson
Studies have demonstrated that the size of transplanted trees has a measurable impact on establishment rates in the landscape. Larger trees require a longer period of time than smaller trees to produce a root system comparable in spatial distribution to similar sized non-transplanted trees. This lag in redevelopment of root system architecture results in reduced growth that increases with transplant size. Research has demonstrated that smaller transplanted trees become established more quickly and ultimately result in larger trees in the landscape in a few years. Additional studies dispute these findings. This paper provides a review of current research on the effect of tree size on transplant establishment.
Anita N. Miller, Porter B. Lombard, Melvin N. Westwood, and Robert L. Stebbins
`Napoleon' grafted onto Colt, F/12-1, and MxM60 rootstock were planted into three types of tree holes: augered; backhoed, and backhoed plus fumigation. The auger treatment resulted in lower yields, smaller trunk cross-sectional area (TSCA), and smaller canopy volume when compared to backhoed holes. Fumigation had no significant effect. Trees on Colt rootstock were more precocious, had a smaller TCSA and canopy volume, greater cumulative yield efficiency, and, in 1987, the smallest fruit weight. The yield efficiency of Colt was the highest until 1988, when it was surpassed by MxM60, but was still similar to F/12-l. Yields were highest on trees of MxM60 in 1987 and 1988.
in 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. Only those surveys reporting tree planting or abandoned orchard renovation were included in the data set. Information was collected on the following: 1) number of trees of each cultivar planted, 2) number
Donita L. Bryan, Michael A. Arnold, Astrid Volder, W. Todd Watson, Leonardo Lombardini, John J. Sloan, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, and Andrew D. Cartmill
significant difference, α = 0.05. Expt. 2: Effect of planting depth during container (36.6 L) production Planting depth significantly affected tree height ( Table 1 ) when all nine treatment combinations were compared. Trees planted BG (B = trees