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Rosa E. Raudales, Tracy A. Irani, Charles R. Hall and Paul R. Fisher

with chemical and physical characteristics of water. Considerable research has been undertaken by plant pathologists on the efficacy of water-treatment technologies for controlling waterborne pathogens ( Raudales, 2013 ). However, investigation has

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Sarah A. White

special sessions were to 1) provide perspectives related to water use by nursery and greenhouse producers and information on how to facilitate grower decision making; 2) detail various practices and treatment technologies that can help to manage nutrient

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Alexa J. Lamm, Laura A. Warner, Peyton Beattie, Abraham Tidwell, Paul R. Fisher and Sarah A. White

water and capture and reuse runoff ( Bixio et al., 2006 ). This study focuses on how greenhouse and nursery growers are implementing water treatment technologies when managing their water resources. Water treatment has been described by Raudales et al

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Sarah A. White

intermittent), all factors affecting nutrient load in irrigation runoff. Constructed wetland systems provide consistent contaminant removal while being both low maintenance and lower in cost than alternative nutrient treatment technologies ( White et al., 2010

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Eric R. Rozema, Robert J. Gordon and Youbin Zheng

Certain ions such as Na+ and Cl can accumulate in recirculating greenhouse nutrient solutions and can reach levels that are damaging to crops. An option for the treatment of this problem is phytodesalinization with Na+ and Cl hyperaccumulating plants that could be added to existing water treatment technologies such as constructed wetlands (CWs). Two microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate eight plant species including Atriplex prostrata L. (triangle orache), Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene (salt grass), Juncus torreyi Coville. (Torrey’s rush), Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed), Spartina alterniflora Loisel. (smooth cordgrass), Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla (softstem bulrush), Typha angustifolia L. (narrow leaf cattail), and Typha latifolia L. (broad leaf cattail) for their Na+ and Cl accumulation potential. An initial (indoor) experiment determined that J. torreyi, S. tabernaemontani, T. angustifolia, and T. latifolia were the best candidates for phytodesalinization because they had the highest Na+ and Cl tissue contents after exposure to Na+ and Cl-rich nutrient solutions. A second (outdoor) experiment quantified the Na+ and Cl ion uptake (grams of each ion accumulated per m2 of microcosm). J. torreyi, S. tabernaemontani, T. angustifolia, and T. latifolia accumulated 5.8, 3.9, 8.3, and 9.2 g·m−2 of Na+ and 25.7, 18.2, 31.6, and 27.2 g·m−2 of Cl, respectively. Of the eight species, T. latifolia and S. tabernaemontani showed the greatest potential to accumulate Na+ and Cl in a CW environment, whereas S. alterniflora, D. spicata, and P. australis showed the least potential.

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Garrett A. Ridge, Natasha L. Bell, Andrew J. Gitto, Steven N. Jeffers and Sarah A. White

Constructed wetlands have been used for decades in agricultural settings to remediate nutrients and other agrichemicals from irrigation runoff and drainage; however, little is known about the presence and distribution of Phytophthora species within irrigation runoff water being treated in constructed wetlands. Therefore, we collected plant samples from within vegetated runoff collection channels and treatment stages of two constructed wetland systems receiving irrigation runoff at a commercial plant nursery in Cairo, GA, to determine if roots of wetland plants were infested by species of Phytophthora. Samples were collected 12 times, at 1- to 2-month intervals, over a 19-month period, from Mar. 2011 through Sept. 2012. The sample period covered all four seasons of the year, so we could determine if the association of Phytophthora species with roots of specific plant species varied with season. Approximately 340 samples from 14 wetland plant species were collected, and 22 isolates of Phytophthora species were recovered. Phytophthora species were typically isolated from plants in channels receiving runoff water directly from plant production areas; Phytophthora species were not detected on plants where water leaves the nursery. No seasonal patterns were observed in plant infestation or presence of species of Phytophthora. In fact, Phytophthora species were rarely found to be associated with the roots of the wetland plants collected; species of Phytophthora were found infesting roots of only 6.5% of the 336 plants sampled. Species of Phytophthora were not found to be associated with the roots of golden canna (Canna flaccida), lamp rush (Juncus effusus var. solutus), duckweed (Lemna valdiviana), or sedges (Carex sp.) during the study period. The exotic invasive plant species marsh dayflower [Murdannia keisak (33% of samples infested)] and alligatorweed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (15% of samples infested)] were found to have the first and third highest, respectively, incidences of infestation, with smooth beggartick (Bidens laevis) having the second highest incidence of samples infested (22%). Management of invasive species in drainage canals and constructed wetland systems may be critical because of their potential propensity toward infestation by Phytophthora species. Plant species recommended for further investigation for use in constructed wetlands to remediate irrigation runoff include golden canna, marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata), pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), and broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia). The results from this study provide an important first look at the associations between species of Phytophthora and wetland plants in constructed wetland systems treating irrigation runoff and will serve to further optimize the design of constructed wetlands and other vegetation-based treatment technologies for the removal of plant pathogens from irrigation runoff.

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Dustin P. Meador, Paul R. Fisher, Philip F. Harmon, Natalia A. Peres, Max Teplitski and Charles L. Guy

a demand on sanitizing agent active ingredients, thereby reducing the efficacy of water treatment technologies for control of microbes, pathogens, and algae ( Copes et al., 2004 ; Ravina et al., 1997 ; Sutton et al., 2006 ). Monitoring of

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for increased success when grafting watermelon. Survey Of Water-Treatment Technologies For Irrigation Raudales et al. (p. 355) surveyed experts on attributes of technologies to treat irrigation water for control of plant pathogens, algae, and biofilm

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Thomas Graham, Ping Zhang, Youbin Zheng and Michael A. Dixon

many of the harmful chemical residues associated with other treatment technologies (e.g., chlorination). These properties make the technology attractive to horticultural production; however, data are lacking on the phytotoxicity of aqueous ozone

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Melissa Bonham, Gerald M. Ghidiu, Erin Hitchner and Elwood L. Rossell

, azinphos-methyl, and phosmet, until the early 1990s. Additionally, the increase in carrot weevil damage may also be attributed to limited acreage for crop rotation, an important pest management tactic for carrot weevil ( Grafius, 1984 ). Seed treatment