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Open access

Claire Boivin, André Gosselin, and Marc-J. Trudel

Abstract

Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Carmello) seeded on 3 Dec. 1984 and 17 Jan. and 8 Mar. 1985 were grown under natural or supplementary lighting (high-pressure sodium) of 100 μ·mol·s−1·m−2 (photosynthetically active radiation) from pricking out to transplanting. Plants of the first, second, and third seeding dates grown under supplementary lighting had at transplanting dry weights 6.6, 3.5, and 2.5 times higher, respectively, than plants grown under natural light. The number of leaves formed below the first inflorescences was reduced significantly with supplementary lighting, which also reduced the incidence of flower abortion. Supplementary lighting increased early marketable yields for the 3 Dec. seeding by 100% (from 0.77 to 1.55 kg/plant) and total yields by 10% (from 3.55 to 3.91 kg/plant). No significant differences between lighting treatments could be observed in early and total yields of plants from the last seeding date.

Open access

Joyce Griffin Latimer, Reuben B. Beverly, and Bill Blum

Abstract

The Georgia transplant industry is based upon production of vegetable transplants in field seedbeds. Since transplants are hand-pulled and packed in crates for shipping, stem strength is important to the survival of the transplants. During a project studying transplant production, we observed differences in stem strength as a result of soil amendments added to the seedbeds. Stem strength of plants has been analyzed using shearing devices, and several methods of analyzing and interpreting shear force data have been reported (2-4). This report compares three methods of analyzing data from field research on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Group Italica) transplant production to determine the most appropriate means of identifying treatment effects on stem strength.

Free access

D.R. La Bonte, A.Q. Villordon, J.R. Schultheis, and D.W. Monks

The influence of a black polyethylene tunnel cover (BTC) was evaluated for its effect on quantity and quality of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] transplants in plant beds in Louisiana and North Carolina. Use of BTC increased production of `Beauregard' transplants from 63% to 553% in comparison with the bare ground control. `Jewel' was less responsive; BTC treatments increased transplant production by at least 48% in Louisiana over the bare ground control, but no increase was observed in North Carolina. Individual transplant weight was at least 34% less in BTC treatments than in the control. The first harvest of cuttings in BTC beds was at least 14 days prior to that in control beds. Transplant quality was assessed as yield of storage roots in repeated trials that extended throughout the normal growing season. Yield of storage roots was not affected by BTC in early season plantings, but was frequently lower for BTC treatment transplants in middle and late season plantings. We therefore do not recommend this method as a means of increasing sweetpotato plant production from bedded roots.

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Donald R. Hodel, A. James Downer, and Dennis R. Pittenger

initiation zone (RIZ) ( Tomlinson, 1990 ). Because of these root system characteristics and the ability of their trunks to store water and carbohydrates ( Tomlinson, 1990 ), palms are relatively easy to transplant—even large specimens with small root balls

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Daniel I. Leskovar, J. Clark Ward, Russell W. Sprague, and Avraham Meiri

Restrictions on pumping water from underground aquifers are limiting vegetable production in Southwest Texas. To determine yield, quality, and water use efficiency (WUE) of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. group Cantalupensis, `Caravelle'), six irrigation systems with varying input levels and their interactions with stand establishment (containerized transplants vs. direct seeding) were examined. Irrigation systems were: 1) pre-irrigated followed by dryland conditions; 2) furrow/no mulch; 3) furrow/mulch (40-μm-thick black polyethylene); 4) surface drip (0 cm depth)/mulch; 5) subsurface drip (10-cm depth)/mulch; and 6) subsurface drip (30-cm depth)/mulch. Field experiments were conducted on a silty clay loam soil during four seasons (1995-98). In 1995, marketable fruit yields were greater for subsurface drip systems at 30-cm depth than for furrow systems, with or without plastic mulch. Transplants grown with surface drip irrigation produced 75% greater yield in the 9-count fruit class size during early harvest than did those grown with subsurface drip (10- or 30-cm depth), but total yield was unaffected by drip tape depth placement. In 1996, the driest season of these studies, direct-seeded plants had higher total yields than did transplants; yield was greatest for direct-seeded plants on subsurface drip placed at 10- or 30-cm soil depth, and for transplants on subsurface drip at 10-cm depth. Soluble solids content was minimally affected by irrigation method, but was higher in fruit from transplants than in those from direct-seeded plants in 3 years. Across all seasons, the average water applied for drip systems was 53% lower than that for conventional furrow systems, and WUE was 2.3-fold as great.

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Market Order 955 ( Boyhan and Torrance, 2002 ). This high-value crop is produced from transplants on-farm in high-density plantings ( Boyhan and Kelley, 2007 ). Onion seeds are sown in September at a rate of 800,000 to 2,000,000 seeds/acre. These plants

Free access

Daniel S. Egel, Ray Martyn, and Chris Gunter

The last 30 years have witnessed major changes in how watermelons are grown commercially in the United States. Intensive watermelon production often involves the use of transplants, black plastic mulch, and fumigants. These production methods have

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Georgia's most important vegetable crop is the short-day sweet onion marketed as the Vidalia onion, which had a farm gate value over $125 million in 2005 ( Boatright and McKissick, 2006 ). This high value crop is produced from transplants produced

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Melvin R. Hall

Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.)] storage root yields were evaluated from ≈ 25-cm transplants. The shoot apex was either removed or not removed from pulled (underground stem retained) and cut (underground stem removed) `Georgia Jet' and `Red Jewel' plants. The shoot apex was not removed from pulled and cut `Jewel' plants on which the basal half was immersed or not immersed in calcium hypochlorite solutions. Cut plants of all three cultivars produced higher total marketable and U.S. no. 1 yields than pulled plants. However, neither removing the shoot apex from `Georgia Jet' and `Red Jewel' nor immersing the basal half of `Jewel' plants in calcium hypochlorite solutions improved yields.

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Ajay Nair and Brandon Carpenter

Pepper is an important vegetable crop in the United States with 44,800 acres planted annually ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016 ). Pepper crops are established using transplants since transplants are uniform in size, increase earliness, and