at transplant. Arnold and Struve (1989) and Struve (1993) report delayed landscape establishment when transplanting container-grown plants with overly developed (i.e., root-bound) root systems. The most critical factor affecting landscape
Sudeep Vyapari, S.M. Scheiber, and E.L. Thralls
Jim E. Wyatt and James A. Mullins
Transplanting has been one means of obtaining earlier yield in certain spring-grown vegetables (Sams, 1983; Weston and Zandstra, 1986). Studies were conducted in 1987 to investigate the feasibility of transplanting sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf.), which is normally direct-seeded. The objectives were to determine the effects of container type on sweet corn transplant growth and subsequent plant development and ear quality and to compare transplanted and direct-seeded sweet corn under field conditions.
Rhoda L. Burrows and Luther Waters Jr.
After the first full growing season, 9- and 11-week-old asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) seedlings transplanted in fall exhibited superior crown and fern characteristics relative to seedlings of the same ages transplanted in spring. Seedlings overwintered in coldframes and planted in the spring matched or exceeded growth of those transplanted the previous fall. The hybrid ‘Jersey Giant’ was superior to an improved selection of ‘Mary Washington’ for all planting dates. Correlations between seedling size at transplanting and after one season’s growth were significant for crown weight (r = 0.82), fern weight (r = 0.65), and fern number (r = 0.60). The importance of seedling size is further confirmed by the superior growth of 11-week-old over 9-week-old seedlings up to 18 months after planting.
L. R. Nelms and L. Art Spomer
Water stress resulting from inadequate soil water retention following transplanting is a major cause of container-grown transplant failure. The relatively small water supply contained in the soil containers used in nursery and bedding plant production is reduced further by enhanced drainage following transplanting. This drainage phenomenon, which has received little previous attention, was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Samples of 2 suitable container soils were embedded in simulated ground bed soil and retained in a container; water retention of the embedded soil, surrounding ground bed soil, and contained soil was monitored simultaneously to determine if the embedded soil (analogous to a container-grown transplant’s soil) retained less water than the contained soil. The embedded soils lost 30% to 85% of their estimated available water within a few hours, whereas contained soils lost the same quantity only after 3 or 4 days of surface evaporation. A simultaneous increase in water content in the surrounding ground bed soil indicated that the rapid water loss from the embedded soil was due to water movement into the surrounding soil. A similar water loss following subsequent irrigation of the embedded and ground bed soils indicated that this embedded soil water loss is primarily a drainage phenomenon. This effect was concluded to be a potentially significant factor affecting transplant survival.
Richard L. Parish
This article is a review of the current status in planting and transplanting equipment and practices for vegetable crops. A review of horticultural and agricultural engineering literature is supplemented by information from an informal survey of members of American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) committee PM-48, Fruit and Vegetable Production Engineering, and other engineers and horticulturists working in this field. Areas covered include precision seed metering, seed placement, and high-speed transplanting with automated plant handling.
Donald R. Hodel, A. James Downer, and Dennis R. Pittenger
initiation zone (RIZ) ( Tomlinson, 1990 ). Because of these root system characteristics and the ability of their trunks to store water and carbohydrates ( Tomlinson, 1990 ), palms are relatively easy to transplant—even large specimens with small root balls
B. A. Kratky, J. K. Wang, and K. Kubojiri
Head weights of ‘Nagaoka 55’ Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinenis (Lour.) Olsson) were 76–79% greater at a plant spacing of 43 cm than at 28 cm. Percentage salable and grade 1 heads both increased with increasing distance between plants. Seedlings were raised in cylindrical containers of 2.5, 3.75, 5 and 7.5 cm diameter × 6.4 cm depth for 3,4,5 and 6 weeks in a seedling house. Transplant age affected maturity time minimally and did not affect yield. Seedling fresh weight was greater in 7.5 cm containers than in the smaller containers at all transplant ages. Plants started in 7.5 cm containers matured 7.5 days earlier, produced 10% heavier heads and yielded 25–31% more than plants started in 2.5 cm containers. Plants from the larger containers probably performed better as a result of the more favorable physical properties or fertilization regime of the container media. The highest yields in these trials exceeded 3 MT/ha · day.
Leslie A. Weston and Bernard H. Zandstra
‘Pik-Red’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants grown in the greenhouse were fertilized with three levels of N and P. Nitrogen at 400 mg·liter-1 and P at 30 mg·liter-1 had produced the largest transplants at 5 weeks after sowing. Nitrogen at 100 mg·liter-1 produced the largest root : shoot ratio. Phosphorus had no effect on root : shoot ratios. Plants fertilized with moderate and high N levels in the greenhouse produced larger early yields in the field, but there was no effect of N or P level applied in the greenhouse on total yield. Four- and 5-week-old plants produced greatest total yields.
Brian A. Kahn, Niels O. Maness, Donna R. Chrz, and Lynda K. Carrier
. Basil is grown primarily from transplants ( Nurzyńska-Wierdak, 2002 ), but the crop can be established by direct seeding ( Davis, 1997 ; Simon, 1995 ). Producers are interested in direct seeding for basil stand establishment as a possible method to
George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill
Market Order 955 ( Boyhan and Torrance, 2002 ). This high-value crop is produced from transplants on-farm in high-density plantings ( Boyhan and Kelley, 2007 ). Onion seeds are sown in September at a rate of 800,000 to 2,000,000 seeds/acre. These plants