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Sudeep Vyapari, S.M. Scheiber, and E.L. Thralls

at transplant. Arnold and Struve (1989) and Struve (1993) report delayed landscape establishment when transplanting container-grown plants with overly developed (i.e., root-bound) root systems. The most critical factor affecting landscape

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Richard L. Parish

This article is a review of the current status in planting and transplanting equipment and practices for vegetable crops. A review of horticultural and agricultural engineering literature is supplemented by information from an informal survey of members of American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) committee PM-48, Fruit and Vegetable Production Engineering, and other engineers and horticulturists working in this field. Areas covered include precision seed metering, seed placement, and high-speed transplanting with automated plant handling.

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Donald R. Hodel, A. James Downer, and Dennis R. Pittenger

initiation zone (RIZ) ( Tomlinson, 1990 ). Because of these root system characteristics and the ability of their trunks to store water and carbohydrates ( Tomlinson, 1990 ), palms are relatively easy to transplant—even large specimens with small root balls

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Brian A. Kahn, Niels O. Maness, Donna R. Chrz, and Lynda K. Carrier

. Basil is grown primarily from transplants ( Nurzyńska-Wierdak, 2002 ), but the crop can be established by direct seeding ( Davis, 1997 ; Simon, 1995 ). Producers are interested in direct seeding for basil stand establishment as a possible method to

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Market Order 955 ( Boyhan and Torrance, 2002 ). This high-value crop is produced from transplants on-farm in high-density plantings ( Boyhan and Kelley, 2007 ). Onion seeds are sown in September at a rate of 800,000 to 2,000,000 seeds/acre. These plants

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Georgia's most important vegetable crop is the short-day sweet onion marketed as the Vidalia onion, which had a farm gate value over $125 million in 2005 ( Boatright and McKissick, 2006 ). This high value crop is produced from transplants produced

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Ajay Nair and Brandon Carpenter

Pepper is an important vegetable crop in the United States with 44,800 acres planted annually ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016 ). Pepper crops are established using transplants since transplants are uniform in size, increase earliness, and

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Frederic B. Ouedraogo, B. Wade Brorsen, Jon T. Biermacher, and Charles T. Rohla

) to reduction in shoot growth and decline of the trees ( Ortega et al., 2006 ). In some cases, root malformation may lead to the death of the plant. Survival and the resilience of nursery seedlings to transplant stress depends on their ability to

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Chuck Ingels and John Roncoroni

amounts, it is slow to emerge in field conditions, and establishment is sporadic due to weed competition ( Amme, 2008 ). Therefore, it is typically established by transplanting plugs or plants grown in small pots 6–12 inches apart ( Greenlee, 2000 ), and

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

practices in the propagation bed and transplant (nonrooted stem cuttings, which are also referred to as slips) cutting practices are often overlooked both in research and in practice within production fields. The practice of holding transplants for a few DBP