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Carmen del Río and Abdeslam Proubi

To Ignacio Lorite, for his assistance in propagating and training plants. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked

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Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Stephen Morris and Trevor Olesen

manual pruning; mature trees with multiple leaders and narrow branch angles are common. More recently, there has been speculation that central leader training combined with ongoing selective limb removal as the tree matures, may maintain better canopy

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Yiannis G. Ampatzidis and Matthew D. Whiting

). Strik et al. (2003) found that pruning method affected hand harvest efficiency of blueberries (‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Berkeley’), in some cases by more than 50%. New high-density training systems for sweet cherry have been introduced in an attempt to produce

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Stefano Musacchi, Federico Gagliardi and Sara Serra

higher densities in pome and stone fruit orchards, including sweet cherry, requires adopting more efficient training systems. Novel architectures that enhance light interception and distribution into the canopy have been developed, ensuring early cropping

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N.G. Creamer, K.R. Baldwin and F.J. Louws

We gratefully thank the Southern Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Professional Development Program and the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service for funding the training described here. In addition, we would like

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Cynthia Haynes, Denise Ellsworth, Sarah Ellis Williams, Celeste Welty and Karen Jeannette

EMGs are Cooperative Extension-trained volunteers who teach public horticulture and are active in most states in the United States ( Meyer, 2007 ). Providing up-to-date, high quality training, especially in pest management, is critical for volunteer

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Mary B. Musgrove, J. David Williams, Bridget K. Behe and Kenneth M. Tilt

Before analyzing the responses of Alabama garden center employees about the training they had received, we determined how satisfied 100 Alabama Master Gardeners were with the employee-s who helped them in the store from which they most often purchased plants for their homes, landscapes, or gardens. We mailed the primary survey to 472 employees of 130 retail garden center businesses in Alabama to determine the percentage of employees who received job training and the amount, frequency, and methods of training they received while working for their current employers (37% responded). Employees were categorized as managers (28%) or subordinate employees (72%) and full-time (72%) or part-time (28%). Forty-four percent of the employees had received some training at the time they were hired. Training continued for 68% of the respondents. Only 39% of the employees had a written description of their job responsibilities discussed with them. Most (85%) believed the training they received had prepared them to do their jobs well, but 82% said more training would increase their confidence in their work performance. Most employees were trained by one-on-one instruction (60%) and small-group sessions (5 or fewer persons) (65%). Few employees received training from videotapes (5%) or educational seminars (26%), and most that did were managers and full-time employees.

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Karen L. Panter

Between Dec. 1992 and July 1993, 13 greenhouse operations took part in on-site training programs concerning pesticide application safety. Each program involved a pre-quiz, post-quiz, presentation of two videotapes, discussion, session evaluation, and follow-up evaluation 1 month after each session. A total of 253 Colorado greenhouse employees participated in the programs, which fulfilled the employee training requirements for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication standard concerning hazardous materials in the workplace. Quiz scores increased from the pre- to the post-program quiz, from 17.3 to 22.1 points out of a possible 27. Post-program evaluations indicated that the vast majority of respondents either “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that (percentages in parentheses): “the training program will be helpful” (85%), “I understand hazardous materials better” (81%), “the training videos helped understanding” (84%), and “I would like the training done regularly” (79%). Follow-up evaluations showed that most “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that (percentages in parentheses): “I have used at least one new safe handling practice” since the program (55%), and “I plan to use more” safe handling practices (82%). This method of instructing employees about hazardous materials would be applicable to others interested in safety issues.

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Madeline Wimmer, Beth Ann Workmaster and Amaya Atucha

Training systems can determine a vineyard’s production potential, as grapevine form defines the spatial distribution of leaves and shoots within a canopy, affecting sunlight interception and thus photosynthesis capacity of leaves ( Katerji et al

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Andrew L. Thomas, Jackie L. Harris, Elijah A. Bergmeier and R. Keith Striegler

establishment may also advance the onset of quality fruit production and economic return. ‘Chambourcin’ establishment techniques, including early vine training methods and the use of vine shelters, have been poorly researched in the midwestern United States