A field planting of `Empire' and `Redchief Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestics Borkh.) was established in 1978 to evaluate four planting systems: 1) slender spindle/M.9, 2) Y-trellis/M.26, 3) central leader/M.9/MM.111, and 4) central leader/M.7a. During the first 5 years, yields per hectare for `Empire' were positively correlated with tree density. In the second 5 years, the Y-trellis/M.26 trees produced the highest yields while yields of the other systems continued to be related to tree density. Cumulative yields were highest with the Y-trellis/M.26 trees. With `Delicious', the Y-trellis/M.26 yields were greatest during all 10 years despite lower tree density than the slender spindle/M.9. Yields of `Delicious' with the other three systems were a function of tree density during the 10 years. At maturity, canopy volume per tree was greatest on the central leader/M.7a trees and smallest on the slender spindle/M.9 trees; however, there were no significant differences in canopy volume per hectare between the systems despite large differences in yield. Trunk cross sectional area (TCA) per hectare was greatest with the Y-trellis/M.26 trees and smallest with the central leader/M.7 trees. Yield was highly correlated to TCA/ha. Yield efficiency with `Empire' was greatest for the slender spindle/M.9 system, followed by the Y-trellis/M.26, central leader/M.9/MM.111, respectively. With both cultivars, the central leader/M.7a system had the lowest yield efficiency. With `Delicious', there were no differences in yield efficiency for the other three systems. The greater yield of the Y-trellis/M.26 system was the result of greater TCA/ha and not greater efficiency. `Empire' fruit size was largest on the central leader/M.7a and the central leader/M.9/MM.111 trees and smallest on the slender spindle/M.9 and the Y-trellis/M.26 trees. With `Delicious', fruit size was larger with the Y-trellis/M.26 trees than the other systems. When fruit size was adjusted for crop density, there were no significant differences due to system with `Empire', but with `Delicious' the Y-trellis/M.26 trees had larger adjusted fruit size than the other systems. Crop density calculated using TCA correlated better to fruit size than did crop density calculated using annual increase in TCA, canopy volume, or land area. Fruit color and quality with `Redchief Delicious' were not influenced by system. With `Empire', average fruit color and soluble solids content were lower for the Y-trellis/M.26 and slender spindle/M.9 in some years when canopy density was allowed to become. excessive.
Terence L. Robinson, Alan N. Lakso, and Stephen G. Carpenter
S.R. Drake, T.A. Eisele, D.C. Elfving, M.A. Drake, S.L. Drake, and D.B. Visser
In a study conducted over three crop seasons, Ethrel (ETH) increased the Brix, sucrose, and sorbitol content of 'Scarletspur Delicious' apple juice while reducing the fructose content. Both longer preharvest exposure to, and higher concentrations of, ETH had a stronger influence than application closer to harvest and/or at lesser amounts. Time of ETH application tended to influence individual carbohydrates more so than amount of ETH applied. ETH reduced total acidity and also reduced apple juice individual acid (quinic and malic) contents with longer preharvest exposure or higher concentrations. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine [AVG (ReTain)] reduced both Brix and sucrose content of 'Scarletspur Delicious' apple juice, but had no influence on either total acidity or individual acid contents. Combinations of AVG with ETH tended to counteract the influence of either used alone on total Brix, carbohydrates, total acidity and individual acids. Mineral content of 'Scarletspur Delicious' apple juice was not strongly influenced by application of either ETH or AVG.
H.F. Abouziena, O.M. Hafez, I.M. El-Metwally, S.D. Sharma, and M. Singh
physical characters (fruit length, fruit diameter, and fruit length/diameter ratio). Chemical characteristics of fruit juice, i.e., total soluble solids, total acidity, ascorbic acid, and vitamin C were analyzed as described by the Association of Official
Andrew R. Jamieson and Katherine Sanford
Twelve clones of `Blomidon' strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) exhibiting a range of severity of June Yellows symptoms were grown in field plots to measure effects on productivity. Field plot layout was a randomized block design with four blocks. Plots were matted rows developed from five plants spaced at 45 cm inrow. Fruit samples were frozen and later analyzed for soluble solids concentration, total acidity, and pH. In the greenhouse, self-pollinated seedlings grown from these clones were rated for symptom expression as an additional measure of severity of June Yellows. Large differences in marketable yields were recorded, ranging from 1.94 t·ha–1 to 14.67 t·ha–1. Clones with severe symptoms produced smaller fruit. Small clonal differences were measured in total acidity and pH. A strong correlation was observed between the percentage of symptomless seedlings and the yield of the parental clone. This may lead to a test to predict whether a new cultivar will succumb to June Yellows.
A.M. Akl, Faissal F. Ahmed, Farag M. El-Morsy, and Mohamed A. Ragab
The effect of single or combined application of urea-formaldehyde at 80 g N/vine, sulfur at 0.4%, and three compounds of iron (chelated, sequestered, and sulfate forms as 0.1%) on productivity of `Red Roomy' grapevines was studied during 1995 and 1996. A substantial increase in berry set, number of clusters, yield weight of clusters and berries, total soluble solid sugars, and anthocyanins was observed because of the application of these fertilizers singly or in combination. Total acidity in the juice was reduced because of application of these fertilizers. Combined application of urea-formaldehyde, sulfur, and chelated iron gave the best results with regard to yield and quality of berries. An economical yield was obtained on `Red Roomy' vines supplied with urea-formaldehyde at 80 g/vine, sulfur at 0.4%, and chelated iron at 0.1%.
F.F. Ahmed, A.M. Akl, A.A. Gobara, and A.E.M. Monsour
The beneficial effect on yield and quality of `Anna' apple fruits for the application of ascobine at 0.1% and citrine at 0.6% was studied during 1995 and 1996. Results showed that two citrine sprays at start of growth and 30 days later of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% were of material promotion effect on yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, and total sugars, while reducing the total acidity. Both fertilizers were equally very effective in all the studied characters. The most striking and promising treatment was the application of ascobine at 0.1% or citrine at 0.6% twice during the growing season; i.e., growth start at 30 days later.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jung-An Jo
Although fruits obtained by organic cultivation (OC) have been believed to be healthier than those by conventional cultivation (CC), but clear experimental evidences supporting the assumption are still lacking. Therefore this study was carried out to investigate the effects of OC on total polyphenol content and anti-oxidant activity in `Hongro' apples (Malus domestica). Anthocyanin content of fruit skin was increased in apples from OC. Soluble solid content and pH of apple juice was higher in the OC than in the CC, but total acidity in fruit juice showed reversed result. Also, chlorophyll content showed no difference between OC and CC. Total polyphenol compounds extracted with methanol, were higher in the OC than in the CC, and also higher in peel than in flesh. Also, anti-oxidant activity estimated by free radical scavenging effect showed significantly stronger under the OC than the CC.
A.M Akl, Ahmed F. Faissal, and S. Youssef William
Physical and chemical properties of Red Roomy grapes in response to spraying cycocel and some micronutrients were investigated through two consecutive seasons. One spray 15 days before first bloom, 30 days after berry .set, or all of the three previous dates together and/or using Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe in combination at 0.0% or 0.3% in sulphate form were applied. Three sprays of cycocel at 1000 ppm in combined with the four micronutrients together at 0.3% exerted a lower percentages shot and cracked berries and total acidity and a greater total soluble and total sugars percentages. The adverse effect of cycocel can be diminished by spraying the micronutrients with it together at 0.3%. The most pronounced effect on berries quality was obtained as a result of spraying Red Roomy vines with cycocel at 1000 ppm plus the application of Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe at 0.3% three times.
Amots Hetzroni, Denys J. Charles, Jules Janick, and James E. Simon
A prototype of a nondestructive electronic sensory system (electronic sniffer) that responds to volatile gases emitted by fruit during ripening was developed. The electronic sniffer is based upon four semiconductor gas sensors designed to react with a range of reductive gases, including aromatic volatiles. In 1994, we examined the potential of using the electronic sniffer as a tool to nondestructively determine ripeness in `Golden Delicious' and `Goldrush' apples. Fruit were harvested weekly from 19 Sept. to 17 Oct. (`Golden Delicious') and 27 Sept. to 18 Nov. (`Goldrush'). Each week, apples of each cultivar were evaluated individually for skin color, weight size, and headspace volatiles. Each fruit was then evaluated by the electronic sniffer, and headspace ethylene was sampled from air within the testing box. Individual fruits were then evaluated for total soluble solids, firmness, pH, total acidity, and starch index value. The electronic sniffer was able to distinguish and accurately classify the apples into three ripeness stages (immature, ripe, and over-ripe). Improved results were obtained when multiple gas sensors were used rather than a single gas sensor.
Faissal F. Ahmed, Ahmed M. Akl, and Farag M. El-Morsy
During 1995 and 1996, yield and quality of `Banaty' grapes in response to spraying chelated iron and zinc singly or in combination each at 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.3% was investigated. Each concentration was applied once, twice, three, four, or five times. Results showed that there was a gradual increase in berry set, cluster number, yield, cluster weight, berry weight, total soluble solid sugars, and total anthocyanins with rising concentrations and number of sprays of each fertilizer. Total acidity tended to reduce with such treatment. Combined spray of both fertilizers, particularly at 0.1% four times, gave satisfactory improvement in both quantity and quality of grapes. Spraying at concentrations higher than 0.1% or spraying more than four times failed to show any measurable effect on all of the studied traits. The best results with regard to yield and quality of `Banaty' grapes were obtained on vines that received four sprays of iron and zinc each at 0.1% in chelated form.