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Bing Liu, Hong Zhou, Sha Cao, Yi-ping Xia and Rajeev Arora

carbohydrates (total soluble sugars and starch) to explore any correlations between the changes in these carbohydrates and deacclimation kinetics. Materials and Methods Plant material and sampling environment. The experiment was conducted using 2-year

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Shawna L. Daley, William Patrick Wechter and Richard L. Hassell

for each time after treatment to determine the amount of carbohydrate available in an average hypocotyl or cotyledon. Glucose, sucrose, and fructose results were combined and are reported as total soluble sugars, and starch results are reported alone

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Azadeh Behrooz, Kourosh Vahdati, Farhad Rejali, Mahmoud Lotfi, Saadat Sarikhani and Charles Leslie

determined using the Kjeldahl method ( Bradstreet, 1954 ). P and Zn concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry ( Masson et al., 2010 ). Physiologic and biochemical characteristics. Chlorophyll, proline, total soluble sugar

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Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun and Li Liu

. For these purposes, nutrient (i.e., total soluble sugar, sucrose, reducing sugar, fructose, starch, and protein) content, the activities of related enzymes (i.e., SS, SPS, AMY, AGPase, SSS, and GBSS), and the content of endogenous hormones (viz. GA

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Sameh Sassi-Aydi, Samir Aydi and Chedly Abdelly

temperature for 72 h, then assayed by flame-emission photometry (Corning Flame Photometer, Model M410; Sherwood Scientific Ltd., Cambridge, U.K.). Total soluble sugars determination. Total soluble sugars were quantified using the anthrone method. Samples of 20

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Changwei Shen, Yifei Ding, Xiqiong Lei, Peng Zhao, Shuo Wang, Yangchun Xu and Caixia Dong

. Fruit firmness was assessed with a penetrometer (FT327; Effegi, Alfonsine, Italy) with an 11.3-mm probe. SSC was determined using a refractometer (PAL-1; Atago, Tokyo, Japan). Total soluble sugar was measured using the anthrone–sulphuric acid

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Hai-Fang Yang, Hye-Ji Kim, Hou-Bin Chen, Jillur Rahman, Xing-Yu Lu and Bi-Yan Zhou

differentiation stages. Values represent means of five replicates and bars indicate se s. M-D = month–date. Changes in sugar and starch contents in terminal shoots at different developmental stages. Total soluble sugar contents of the dark green leaves in three

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X. Liu, P. Robinson, M.L. Arpaia and G.W. Witney

Monthly samples were taken from 9-year-old `Hass' avocado trees on Duke 7 rootstock grown at the UC Southcoast Research and Extension Center in Irvine, Calif. Changes in starch and total soluble sugars were monitored from fine and coarse roots, trunk (above the bud union), small diameter stems, leaves, and fruit. When possible, seasonal carbohydrate changes were compared to root and shoot flushing patterns. In all of the vegetative plant organs monitored, total soluble sugars accounted for most of the carbohydrate. Starch accounted for ≈10% of the sample dry weight, whereas the total soluble sugars accounted for ≈18%. D-mannoheptulose and perseitol, both C7 sugars, were the predominant soluble sugars throughout the year. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose accounted for <5% of the total soluble sugars. During fruit development, soluble sugar content of the exo- and mesocarp tissues >25% of the dry weight. The significance of these findings will be discussed in relationship to tree phenology and carbohydrate partitioning.

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Gregory L. Reighard, Danielle Ellis and Charles Graham

'Redhaven' and 'Springcrest' peach cultivars were budded to 12 rootstock selections and planted on a non-fumigated peach tree short life site. After 2 growing seasons, 2 shoots/tree (20 trees/stion) were collected in late November 1990 and again in early March 1991. Samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and later freeze dried and prepared for analysis. Total soluble sugars and starch were extracted from the shoot and quantified. No significant differences among rootstocks or cultivars were found for total soluble sugars and starch. No significant correlations were found between stion carbohydrates in fall and spring and the incidence of bacterial canker in April 1991. Total soluble sugars and starch averaged 110 and 120 mg/g dry tissue for fall and spring sample times, respectively. Cultivars on the hybrid plum rootstock 'Edible Sloe' had the highest soluble carbohydrates in both fall and spring.

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Li-Juan Zhang, Tian-Xiu Zhong, Li-Xin Xu, Lie-bao Han and Xunzhong Zhang

( A ), total soluble sugar ( B ), and total soluble protein ( C ) to soil moisture treatments in creeping bentgrass. 0D, 14D, and 35D represent 0, 14, and 35 d of treatment, respectively. Data represent the mean ± se (n = 4). Bars within each sampling