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David G. Riley, Shimat V. Joseph, W. Terry Kelley, Steve Olson, and John Scott

Thrips-transmitted TSWV ( Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae ) has caused serious losses to tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., production worldwide ( Goldbach and Peters, 1994 , Persley et al., 2006 ). In Georgia alone, the losses to tomato and pepper

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Olga Fedorowicz, Grzegorz Bartoszewski, Maria Kamińska, Pravda Stoeva, and Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

This study was undertaken to remedy significant yield losses in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) production caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). One of the possible sources of resistance can be incorporation into the host plant of a viral nucleoprotein (N) gene by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Twelve primary transformants of tomato and 141 of tobacco were analyzed for the expression of the N gene and for resistance to the TSWV infection. The tests have demonstrated that transgenic plants were protected against virus infection irrespective of whether or not they contained detectable levels of the translational product.

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P.A. Stack, L.B. Stack, and F.A. Drummond

A mail survey of greenhouse growers was conducted in 1994 and 1995 to determine the presence and importance of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, in Maine greenhouses in growing years 1993 and 1994. Respondents were licensed growers with at least 1000 ft2 (93 m2) of greenhouse growing area. The survey objectives were to develop a grower demographic profile; determine the incidence of WFT and two WFT-vectored plant viruses, tomato spotted wilt (TSWV) and impatiens necrotic spot (INSV); and identify current WFT management strategies. The survey shows that Maine greenhouse growers are seasonal, experienced and retail oriented. Their growing area averages less than 10,000 ft2 (929 m2) and they produce a diverse crop mix and choose to import production stock as much as propagate it themselves. Both WFT and TSWV/INSV have increased in severity in Maine greenhouses over the past 10 years. Larger, year-round greenhouses are more likely to experience infestations of WFT and higher virus incidence. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy is employed by the majority of growers surveyed. Insecticide application is the primary tactic used to control WFT. Fewer than 4% of the growers use natural enemies to control thrips. However, 63% responded that future research in pest management should focus on biological control.

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Leonardo de B. Giordano, Antônio Carlos de Ávila, João Maria Charchar, Leonardo S. Boiteux, and Edinardo Ferraz

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Juan C. Díaz-Pérez, K. Dean Batal, Darbie Granberry, Denne Bertrand, David Giddings, and Hanu Pappu

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a serious constraint to tomato production worldwide. Losses are significant because the disease is difficult to control and most of the commercially available tomato cultivars are susceptible to TSWV. This study was intended to provide information that could be used to design more appropriate disease management strategies. The objective was to determine the relationship of tomato plant growth and fruit yield with the time of TSWV symptom appearance. Experiments were carried out during Spring 1999 and 2000, using drip irrigation and plastic film mulched beds with black plastic mulch alone (1999) or different colored mulches (2000). The mulches used were black, black-on-silver, gray-on-black, red, silver-on-black, silver (painted) and white-on-black, and bare soil. The 1999 experiment included a single TSWV-susceptible cultivar (Florida-47), while the 2000-experiment included two TSWV-susceptible (Florida-91 and Sun Chaser) and one TSWV-resistant cultivars (BHN-444). Colored mulches and tomato cultivars affected the time between transplanting and appearance of first symptoms of TSWV. For all tomato cultivars, vegetative top fresh weight (FW), fruit number and total fruit yield increased linearly with the time the plants remained free from TSWV symptoms. Marketable fruit yield also increased as the time from transplanting to the first appearance of symptoms increased. When data for cultivars were pooled, vegetative top FW and total fruit yield were reduced by 2.1% and 2.3%, respectively, for each day prior to harvesting that plants showed TSWV symptoms.

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Parminder S. Multani, Christopher S. Cramer, Robert L. Steiner, and Rebecca Creamer

distinct tospovirus species Phytopathology 88 1276 1282 Cosmi, T. Marchesini, E. Martini, G. 2003 Presence and spread of tospovirus and thrip vectors in Veneto Info. Agrario 59 69 72 Coudriet, D.L. Kishaba, A.N. McCreight, J.D. Bohn, W.G. 1979 Varietal

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Peter C. Andersen, Stephen M. Olson, M. Timur Momol, and Joshua H. Freeman

radiation ( Ham et al., 1993 ; Lamont, 2005 ; Tarara, 2000 ). Tomato spotted wilt is caused by a virus belonging in the genus Tospovirus and the family Bunyaviridae ( Adkins et al., 2009 ). TSW was originally described in Australia ( Brittlebank, 1919

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Arcenio Gutièrrez-Estrada, Emma Zavaleta-Mejl̀a, and Gustavo Mora-Aguilera

Viruses associated to eight Alstroemeria varieties and the relationship of thrips density and environmental factors with Tomato Spotted Wilt (TSW) intensity as well as the TSW effect on yield were studied in `Rosario' in Central Mexico. Using hosts range the viruses detected were Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus (TSWV), Impatiens Necrotic Spot Tospovirus (INSV), Alstroemeria Mosaic Potyvirus (AlMV), Alstroemeria Streak Potyvirus (ASV), Arabis Mosaic Nepovirus (ArMV) and Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV). With serology, the presence of TSWV was confirmed in `Jubilee', `Rosario', and `Regina'; INSV in `Anabel', `Jubilee', and `Red Sunset'; and AlMV in `Rosario', `Red Sunset', `Rosita', `Yellow King', `Jubilee', and `Rojo Sangria'. TSWV and AlMV were found coinfecting `Rosario' plants. Five percent of plants were serologically positive to TSWV in the first flower harvest (25 Jan.-5 Apr.), 10% in the second (12 Apr.-21 June), and third (5 July-13 Sept.) and 18% in the last harvest (24 Sept.-6 Dec.). The highest peak density of thrips (520 to 630 individuals per sticky trap) were registered when the maximum temperature was higher than 35 °C and the relative humidity was between 40% to 60%. However, such peak density was not correlated with a significant increase of TSW incidence. Number and quality of inflorescences and the stem growth rate were significantly higher (P = 0.05) in plots with asymptomatic plants than that with plants showing putative symptoms of TSW.

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Arcenio Gutierrez-Estrada, Emma Zavaleta-Mejl̀a, and Gustavo Mora-Aguilera

Viruses associated to eight Alstroemeria varieties and the relationship of thrips density and environmental factors with Tomato Spotted Wilt (TSW) intensity as well as the TSW effect on yield were studied in `Rosario' in Central Mèxico. Using hosts range the viruses detected were Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus (TSWV), Impatiens Necrotic Spot Tospovirus (INSV), Alstroemeria Mosaic Potyvirus (AlMV), Alstroemeria Streak Potyvirus (ASV), Arabis Mosaic Nepovirus (ArMV), and Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV). With serology it was confirmed the presence of TSWV in `Jubilee', `Rosario', and `Regina' varieties; INSV in `Anabel', `Jubilee', and `Red Sunset'; and AlMV in `Rosario', `Red Sunset', `Rosita', `Yellow King', `Jubilee'. and `Rojo Sangria'. TSWV and AlMV were found coinfecting `Rosario' plants. Five percent of plants were serologically positive to TSWV in the first flower harvest (25 Jan.-5 Apr.), 10% in the second (12 Ap.-21 June), and third (5 July-13 Sept.), and 18% in the last harvest (23 Sept.-6 Dec.). The highest peak density of thrips (520 to 630 individuals per sticky trap) were registered when the maximum temperature was higher than 35 °C and the relative humidity was between 40% to 60%. However, such peak density was not correlated with a significant increase of TSW incidence. Number and quality of inflorescences and the stem growth rate were significantly higher (P = 0.05) in plots with asymptomatic plants than that with plants showing putative symptoms of TSW.

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J.R. Fisher and S.T. Nameth

Ajuga reptans L. is an herbaceous ornamental mint grown in borders or as a groundcover, and is commonly propagated vegetatively and by seed. Three hundred and fifty-six A. reptans samples were obtained from growers in Washington, Michigan, Iowa, and Ohio, and screened for alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco streak ilarvirus (TSV), cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), tomato aspermy cucumovirus (TAV), tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV), impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (INSV), tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV), potato virus × potexvirus (PVX), and 80 potyviruses, using direct antibody sandwich (DAS) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral-associated double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) analysis was used to detect an apparent satellite (sat) RNA, and northern hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG) labeled (S) CARNA-5 cDNA probe was used to confirm the identity of the apparent satRNA. No incidences of TAV, TMV, TSWV, INSV, PVX, or potyviruses were detected. CMV was detected in 11%, AMV in 22.2%, TSV in 3.7%, and mixed infections of CMV and AMV in 1.1% of the samples. SatRNA was detected in 36 A. reptans `Royalty', two `Rainbow', and two `Burgundy Glow' samples by dsRNA analysis, and confirmed by hybridization in 29 `Royalty' and one `Burgundy Glow' samples. Sixteen A. reptans `Royalty' seedlings grown from seed harvested from CMV-infected plants were tested by ELISA for CMV, AMV, and TSV. All were positive for CMV, and two were positive for a mixed infection of CMV and AMV. SatRNA was detected in all 16 seedlings by RT-PCR.