. Developing a sand-cap athletic field system over time using sand topdressing is a possible alternative to complete field renovation as it does not take the field completely out of play. Sand topdressing of athletic fields has been recommended for the
Alexander R. Kowalewski, John N. Rogers III, James R. Crum, and Jeffrey C. Dunne
Ruying Wang, James W. Hempfling, Bruce B. Clarke, and James A. Murphy
Frequent, light sand topdressing is commonly practiced on golf course putting greens during the playing season to maintain firm, smooth surfaces and modify accumulating thatch ( Vavrek, 1995 ). Heavy topdressing rates increase wear on mower reels
Thomas O. Green, John N. Rogers III, James R. Crum, Joseph M. Vargas Jr., and Thomas A. Nikolai
; Landschoot and McNitt, 1997 ; Liu et al., 1995 ; Markland et al., 1969 ; Williams et al., 1996 ). Supplementary cultural practices such as sand topdressing effectively reduce dollar spot as well ( Skorulski et al., 2010 ). Perhaps other supplementary
Huisen Zhu and Deying Li
for efficient leaching of salts. Fairways, which contribute to the largest playing surface on a golf course, are usually maintained on native soils with limited drainage. Because of the relative large area, topdressing, and aeration may not be
Steven M. Borst, J. Scott McElroy, and Greg K. Breeden
to control thatch buildup are aerification, vertical mowing, and sand topdressing (TD) ( McCarty et al., 2007 ; Turgeon, 2008 ). These cultural practices can disrupt golf course play and are often not used repeatedly, increasing the potential for
John C. Stier and Andrew B. Hollman
Empirical observations suggest certain new cultivars of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) with high shoot density require more intensive topdressing and core aeration to control thatch compared to less dense cultivars such as `Penncross. In addition, a variety of Poa annua var. reptans Hausskn., `DW-184, has recently been released for putting green use but management requirements are undocumented. The objective of our project was to determine the core aeration and topdressing requirements for thatch management of creeping bentgrass cultivars `A-4, `G-2, and `Penncross as compared to `DW-184. Plots were established on a sand-based root zone and maintained as putting green turf for 3 years. A factorial treatment arrangement was used to assess the effects of core aeration and topdressing on thatch, topdressing removal, turf quality, and disease. Both `A-4 and `G-2 produced more organic matter as (thatch/mat) than `Penncross and `DW-184. Grass type, core aeration frequency, and topdressing regime affected the amount of topdressing removed by mowing. An interaction between grass type and topdressing regime showed biweekly topdressing with verticutting resulted in less topdressing removal from all grasses except `G-2 compared to monthly topdressing without verticutting. Since no more than 3% of the topdressing applied was removed from any single treatment, however, the overall impact of grass type, core aeration frequency, or topdressing regime are unlikely to affect turf response. Both `A-4 and `G-2 provided consistently better quality turf than `Penncross or `DW-184 at 3.2 mm mowing height, though `A-4 was more susceptible to dollar spot disease (Sclerotinia homeocarpa F.T. Bennett) than `Penncross or `G-2. Cultivation and topdressing methods for management of `A-4 and `G-2 bentgrasses do not differ substantially from `Penncross or `DW-184 creeping bluegrass.
M.D. Richardson and J.W. Boyd
Establishment of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) from sprigs is often impractical for golf courses and sports fields because of the slow growth rate of the species and subsequent long establishment period. A study was conducted at two different sites in Arkansas to evaluate the effects of soil topdressing and post-plant fertility rates on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. Each site was planted according to standard methods using freshly-harvested sprigs (18 m3/ha) and either top dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil or maintained without topdressing. Beginning immediately after establishment, N was applied monthly at rates of 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, or 5.0 g·m-2 as urea. Rate of cover was monitored throughout the growing season and elemental analysis of plant tissues was determined 120 days after planting. Topdressing the sprigs with native soil significantly improved establishment compared to traditional sprigging at both sites, presumably because of enhanced sprig survival. Applications of N during the establishment period had little or no overall effect on establishment, although the 0 g·m-2 rate was slightly inferior to all other rates. This study indicates that methods that enhance sprig survival are more important than added fertility for the rapid establishment of zoysiagrass sprigs.
Raul I. Cabrera
Seven nursery grade (8-9 month duration), polymer-coated, controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were topdressed or incorporated into a 2 peat: 1 vermiculite: 1 sand (by volume) medium to yield the same amount of N per container. The pots (0.5 L) were uniformly irrigated with DI water every week to produce a target leaching fraction of 25%. Leachate N contents (ammonium plus nitrate), employed as indicators of N release, allowed for comparison of CRF performance as a function of temperature changes over a season. Two distinct N leaching (i.e., release) patterns were observed over the 180-day experimental period. The fertilizers Osmocote 18-6-12FS (Fast Start: OSM-FS), Prokote Plus 20-3-10 (PROK), Osmocote 24-4-8HN (High N: OSM-HN) and Polyon 25-4-12 (POLY) exhibited a N leaching pattern that closely followed changes in average daily ambient temperatures (Tavg) over the season. This relationship was curvilinear, with N leaching rates per pot (NLR) being highly responsive to Tavg changes between 20 and 25 °C. Temperatures above 25 °C produced an average maximum NLR of 1.27 mg·d-1 for these fertilizers. OSM-FS, PROK, and OSM-HN had the highest cumulative N losses over the experimental period. In contrast, the CRF group formed by Nutricote 18-6-8 (270: NUTR), Woodace 20-4-12 (WDC), and Osmocote 18-6-12 (OSM) showed a more stable N leaching pattern over a wider range of temperatures, with rates about 30% to 40% lower than those in the temperature-responsive CRF, and averaging a maximum NLR of 0.79 mg·d-1 for Tavg >25 °C. NUTR and WDC had the lowest cumulative N losses over the season. Soluble salt readings paralleled N leaching for each CRF, indicating similar leaching patterns for other nutrients. Incorporation produced significantly higher cumulative N losses than topdressing, but without effect on the actual N leaching pattern over the season. Regardless of the N formulation in the CRF, over 85% of the N recovered in the leachates was in the nitrate form.
Eric D. Miltner, Gwen K. Stahnke, Geoffrey J. Rinehart, and Paul A. Backman
The recent release of `True-Putt' (previously `DW-184') creeping bluegrass [Poa annua L. f. reptans (Hauskins) T. Koyama] gives turfgrass managers a new option for seeding into annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) greens. Because little is known about the culture and management of this newly available seeded cultivar, effective methods for seedling establishment into existing turfgrass canopies, both living and dead, were studied. Four surface cultivation treatments were compared for seedbed preparation before seeding into an existing turfgrass canopy. When seeding into dead turf, two passes with vertical mowing units were more effective than hollow-tine cultivation (HTC), solid-tine cultivation (STC), one pass with the vertical mower plus STC, and the uncultivated control during the first year. Differences were not significant during the second year, most likely because of shallower depth of the vertical mower. Plots averaged about 75% cover by 4 weeks after planting during both years, illustrating the rapid establishment potential for `True-Putt'. After seeding into a live turf canopy, seedlings were indistinguishable from the existing turf, making it impossible to evaluate establishment success.
Ugur Bilgili, F. Olcay Topac-Sagban, Irfan Surer, Nejla Caliskan, Pervin Uzun, and Esvet Acikgoz
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of the rate and timing of the application of sun-dried wastewater sludge from a food processing company's wastewater system on turfgrass growth and quality. The results were compared with those obtained with ammonium nitrate, and changes in the concentration of heavy metals and the presence of fecal coliform in turf soils after sun-dried wastewater sludge application were determined. The rate and the timing of sun-dried wastewater sludge and ammonium nitrate applications affected the turf color, quality, and clipping yield. Monthly fertilization resulted in a more uniform color and turf quality than infrequent spring and fall fertilization. Compared with the background values of base soils, heavy metals did not accumulate in sun-dried wastewater sludge-amended soils over the test period. Fecal coliform was not detected in sludge-amended soil samples, indicating that bacteria regrowth did not occur during the study period.