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Jen-An Lin and Yao-Chien Alex Chang

higher flowering rate ( Wada and Shinozaki, 1985 ). In Oncidium Gower Ramsey, there was a positive correlation between tissue C/N and flowering quality ( Wang, 2011 ). Tissue analysis can directly reveal plant nutrient status, but sampling position and

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William R. Argo and John A. Biernbaum

Research Institute, and Fafard for supporting this research. Plant tissue analysis was provided by Fafard Analytical Services, Athens, Ga. The use of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement of the products named or criticism of similar

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Salvadore J. Locascio, George J. Hochmuth, Fred M. Rhoads, Steve M. Olson, Alan G. Smajstrla, and Ed A. Hanlon

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown with drip irrigation on an Arredondo fine sand and on an Orangeburg fine sandy loam to evaluate the effect of N and K time of application on petiole sap, leaf-N and -K concentrations, fruit yield, and to determine N and K sufficiency ranges in leaf tissue. On the sandy soil, N—K at 196-112 kg·ha-1 were applied 0%, 40%, or 100% preplant with the remainder applied in 6 or 12 equal or in variable applications in 12 weeks. With the variable application rate, most nutrients were applied between weeks 5 and 10 after transplanting. On the sandy loam soil that tested high in K, only N (196 kg·ha-1) was applied as above. Petiole sap K concentration declined during the season, but was not greatly affected by treatment. Petiole NO3-N concentrations decreased during the season from 1100 to 200 mg·L-1, and the decrease was greater with preplant N treatments. On the sandy soil, marketable fruit yields were lowest with 100% preplant, intermediate with 100% drip applied (no preplant N), and highest with 40% preplant and 60% drip applied. With 100% drip applied, yields were higher with 12 even applications than with either six even weekly applications or with 12 variable N and K applications. With 40% preplant, timing of application had little effect on yield. On the sandy loam soil in 1993, yields were highest with 100% preplant, intermediate with 40% preplant and 60% drip applied, and lowest with all N drip applied. In 1994 when excessive rains occurred, yields were similar with all preplant and with split N applications. Petiole N concentration was correlated with tomato yield, especially at 10 weeks after transplanting. The best correlation between sap-N and total yields occurred between 4 and 6 weeks at Gainesville and between 4 and 10 weeks at Quincy.

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Steven A. Sargent

. Source. HS759. 31 July 2012. < http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/cv236 > Hochmuth, G. Maynard, D. Vavrina, C. Hanlon, E. Simonne, E. 2010 Plant tissue analysis and interpretation for vegetable crops in Florida. Univ. Florida, Inst. Food Agr. Sci., Electronic Data

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William R. Argo and John A. Biernbaum

Foundation for supporting this research. Plant material was provided by Wooden Shoe Greenhouses, Holland, Mich., and plant tissue analysis was provided by the Fafard Analytical Services, Athens, Ga. We also acknowledge the help and advice of R. Heins and M

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C.A. Sanchez, G.H. Snyder, and H.W. Burdine

Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms were derived for crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from field fertility experiments conducted over the past 20 years on mineral and organic soils in Florida. Preliminary testing indicates that DRIS diagnoses generally agree with diagnoses using the sufficiency range approach, with the advantage of predicting the degree of nutrient limitation. DRIS also appeared to correctly predict a response to K where sufficiency ranges currently used did not. Overall, DRIS appears to be a useful adjunct to the sufficiency range approach currently used to diagnose nutritional deficiencies in crisphead lettuce.

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Robert D. Wright, Kevin L. Grueber, and Carol Leda

The relationship between medium nutrient levels extracted with the pour-through (PT) and the saturated medium extract (SME) procedures was investigated. These procedures were used as indicators of plant nutrient uptake and growth of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. ex. Klotzch. The medium nutrient levels and electrical conductivity associated with optimal plant growth were about two times greater for PT than for SME. The pH values were similar for both procedures. Regression analysis of the relationship between applied and extracted nutrient levels gave higher R2 values for the SME, although the relationship for PT was acceptable. Both procedures provided an acceptable and similar correlation between the level of NO3-N extracted and the level of N absorbed by the plants. The results demonstrate the utility of both PT and SME as indicators of the nutritional status of a greenhouse medium.

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George J. Hochmuth, Ed A. Hanlon, and John Cornell

Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] was grown at two sites differing slightly in Mehlich-I (double-acid) -extractable P (6 and 10 mg·kg-l soil). Early and total yields responded positively to P rate; however, maximum yields were obtained with small amounts of P fertilizer. The linear-plateau critical P fertilizer rates were 26 and 27 kg·ha-1 at sites 1 and 2, respectively. These critical rates were lower than those currently used for recommending P fertilizer on soils that have very low P. Phosphorus concentrations of most-recently matured leaves at early fruit set were 2.5 and 2.8 g·kg-1 at sites 1 and 2, respectively, with 0 P, and 4.4 and 4.8 g·kg-1 with the 25-kg P/ha treatment.

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Jordan O'N Caldwell, Malcolm E. Sumner, and Charles S. Vavrina

The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) was developed to incorporate the importance of nutrient balance into plant analysis. Yield and plant analysis data from five fertilizer trials conducted in the field during 2 years, using `Granex 33' onions (Allium cepa L.), were entered into a data bank. The trials consisting of a N4 × P4 × K4 × S4, a N4 × P4 × K4 × plant density4, two N4 × P4 × K4, and a 4N × 6S factorial were conducted on sandy Ultisols in Georgia. Significant yield responses resulted from the addition of P and N. Leaf samples were analyzed for N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B. Nutrient data were expressed in ratio form, and the population with yields >45 Mg·ha–1 were used to calculate the DRIS norms. The proposed norms for N, P, K, Mg, and Cu were tested using published data from independently conducted field and greenhouse studies. By accurately diagnosing the most limiting nutrients, these norms successfully predicted yield responses to treatment. Preliminary norms for S, Ca, Mn, Zn, and B were determined but not tested.

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James L. Gibson and Brian E. Whipker

Current fertilizer recommendations for ornamental cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.) suggest applying 150 to 300 mg·L-1 N until the initiation of color development, after which fertilization should be reduced or discontinued. Because these plants are actively growing during cool weather when coloration is initiated, nutrient deficiencies may reduce overall plant quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate N to K ratios for plant growth of ornamental cabbage and the effects of continual and discontinued fertilization during the period of coloration. Fertilizing with 150 to 200 mg·L-1 N and 150 to 200 mg·L-1 K produced high-quality plants and provided sufficient tissue concentrations of N and K. Center-head coloration was not inhibited by N concentrations as high as 250 mg·L-1. Ceasing fertilization prior to center-head coloration resulted in the rapid depletion of N, P, and K concentrations in the lower foliage, leading to the appearance of deficiency symptoms and lower leaf loss. Plants were still actively growing as measured by increased shoot mass during the early stages of coloration; therefore, growers should continue to provide a complete analysis fertilizer at N concentrations ≥150 mg·L-1 until market date.