Seeds of six provenances (Escambia Co., Ala.; Santa Rosa Co., Fla.; Wayne Co., N.C.; Burlington Co., N.J.; New London Co., Conn.; and Barnstable Co., Mass.) of Atlantic white-cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days at 4 °C. Following stratification, seeds were germinated at 25 °C or an 8/16-hour thermoperiod of 30/20 °C with daily photoperiods at each temperature of 0 (total darkness), 1, or 24 hours. The germination of nonstratified seed did not exceed 18%. Seeds germinated at 25 °C required 60 to 90 days stratification to maximize germination. In contrast, 30 days stratification maximized germination at 30/20 °C. Regardless of stratification duration, germination was generally lower at 25 °C than at 30/20 °C for each provenance. Averaged over all treatments, seeds of the Alabama provenance exhibited the greatest germination (61%), followed by those from Florida (45%), with the remaining provenances ranging from 20% to 38%. However, specific treatments for each provenance induced germination >50%. Germination of seeds not exposed to light was <8%, in contrast with 48% and 55% germination for daily photoperiods of 1 and 24 hours, respectively. Seeds from each of the provenances, except for Alabama, exhibited an obligate light requirement when germinated at 25 °C. At 30/20 °C, the North Carolina, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts provenances required light for germination, whereas the Alabama and Florida provenances did not.
Laura G. Jull and Frank A. Blazich
Lutfor S. Rahman* and Farid A. Mir
The study was conducted in three sub-districts of Gazipur district in Bangladesh. It identified the diversity and distribution of tree species and which vegetable crops are grown beneath them, uses of different plants, to identify the problem faced by the farmers. Total of 43 tree plant species are used for fruit and timber were identified in the study area. Based on diversified uses, the major fruit species were jackfruit, mango and coconut. The major timber species were koroi (Albizia procera), raintree (Samanea saman), neem (Azadirachta indica), teak (Tectona grandis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.). Total income was found to increase with increase of farm size. A large number of vegetables (32 species) are cultivated in the study area, largely for local consumption. The study showed that stem amaranthus, indian spinach, aroids, sweet gourd, chili pepper, turmeric, eggplant, and radish were grown under shade of jackfruit, mango, date palm, litchi, mahogany, and drumstick trees. The total income from trees in the last five years was higher in the large farm category than that in the tenant category. The major problems faced by the farmers in tree establishment were damage caused by animals which was reported by 68% of the respondents.
Plants provide humans with food, fiber, feed, ornamentals, industrial products, medicine, shelter, and fuel. As vegetation, they maintain global environmental integrity and the carrying capacity for all life. From an anthropocentric perspective, plants serve as genetic resources (PGR) for sustaining the growing human population. Research on PGR can provide basic knowledge for crop improvement or environmental management that enables renewable, sustainable production of the preceding necessities. PGR also provide the raw material for increasing yield and end product's quality, while requiring fewer inputs (water, nutrients, agrichemicals, etc.). The staples of life—30 or so major grain, oilseed, fiber, and timber species—comprise the “thin green line” vital to human survival, either directly, or through trade and income generation. Many crop genebanks worldwide focus on conserving germplasm of these staples as a shield against genetic vulnerability that may endanger economies and humanity on an international scale. Fewer genebanks and crop improvement programs conserve and develop “minor crops,” so called because of their lesser economic value or restricted cultivation globally. Yet, these minor crops, many categorized as horticultural, may be key to human carrying capacity—especially in geographically or economically marginal zones. The USDA/ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) contains a great number and diversity of minor crop germplasm. The NPGS, other genebanks, and minor crop breeding programs scattered throughout the world, help safeguard human global carrying capacity by providing the raw genetic material and genetic improvement infrastructure requisite for producing superior minor crops. The latter may represent the best hope for developing new varieties and crops, new crop rotations, and new renewable products that in the future may enhance producer profitability or even ensure producer and consumer survival.
Mack Thetford, Shibu Jose, and Edward H. Fletcher III
The demand for special forest products used in the floral industry has a rapidly expanding market. Woody cuts come from perennial shrubs, trees, or woody vines, and are used as floral design materials for the flowering branches, foliage, fruits, or stems. Evaluation of specialty and woody cut production is needed to determine if these plants may be adapted to sustainable agroforestry production systems. An agroforestry approach to woody cuts production for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) producers in Florida is a natural approach given the relatively open canopy of this timber species and the occurrence of several native species with ornamental characteristics that are currently utilized on a small scale for woody cuts production. The present approach to evaluating the suitability of these systems utilizes the following objectives: 1) Evaluate the production potential of ornamental species in monoculture and agroforestry silviculture systems and determine the biophysical interactions between system components. This objective will assess system design and its role on system productivity; determine time to ornamental yield. 2) Quantify the cost of establishing ornamentals for woody cuts production in both monoculture and agroforestry systems. This objective will identify and track overhead/fixed costs and variable costs associated with the ornamental cuts and timber crops for monoculture and agroforestry production systems over a 3-year period. 3) Investigate potential markets for the distribution and sale of cut foliage, flowers or stems. This objective will lead to consultations with florists and cut foliage wholesalers about potential market volume, price, and specifications for products produced within the longleaf pine agroforestry production system.
Xiaobo Song, Shengke Xi, Junpei Zhang, Qingguo Ma, Ye Zhou, Dong Pei, Huzhi Xu, and Jianwu Zhang
parent ( J. hindsii ), suggesting it could also be used as a precious high-quality timber species. ‘ZNS’ features strong asexual reproduction ability, with a rooting prevalence of >95% attainable by the cutting propagation technique of walnuts ( Pei et al
R. Kasten Dumroese, Jasmine L. Williams, Jeremiah R. Pinto, and Peng Zhang
reported, however, to be more sensitive to herbicides than pines ( Pinus L.) or true firs ( Abies Mill.) ( Boyd, 1984 ; Duncan et al., 2008 ). This is unfortunate because larch is a valued timber species with productivity rivaling other species within