root systems and tiller densities of creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass under different N levels in sand root zones will aid in our understanding of how these species interact on golf course putting greens. The purpose of our study was to compare
Eric M. Lyons, Peter J. Landschoot, and David R. Huff
E.H. Ervin, C.H. Ok, B.S. Fresenburg, and J.H. Dunn
'Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is a popular turfgrass species for transition zone golf course fairways and tees because it is generally winter hardy while providing an excellent playing surface with minimal chemical and irrigation inputs. However, its functionality declines readily on many of the shaded areas on these courses. Reduced irradiance causes excessive shoot elongation, reduced tillering, and weak plants that are poorly suited to tolerate or recover from traffic and divoting. Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) effectively reduces gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis and subsequent shoot cell elongation. The objective of this study was to determine if monthly applications of TE would reduce shoot elongation of 'Meyer' zoysiagrass and improve stand persistence under two levels of shade. Shade structures were constructed in the field that continuously restricted 77% and 89% irradiance. A mature stand of 'Meyer' was treated with all combinations of three levels of shade (0%, 77%, and 89%) and three levels of monthly TE application [0, 48 g·ha-1 a.i. (0.5×), and 96 g·ha-1 a.i. (1×)] in 1998 and 1999. In full sun, the 0.5×-rate reduced clipping production by 17% to 20% over a four-week period and the 1×-rate by 30% to 37%. Monthly application of TE at the 1×-rate increased 'Meyer' tiller density in full sun and under 77% shade. Both rates of TE consistently reduced shoot growth under shade relative to the shaded control. Only the monthly applications at the 1×-rate consistently delayed loss of quality under 77% shade. The zoysiagrass persisted very poorly under 89% shade whether treated or not with TE and plots were mostly dead at the end of the experiment. Our results indicate TE can be an effective management practice to increase 'Meyer' zoysiagrass persistence in shaded environments. Chemical name used: 4-cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl)
Hassan Salehi and Morteza Khosh-Khui
Turfgrass seeds can be sown individually, in mixes, or overseeded to provide green color and uniform surfaces in all the seasons. This investigation was conducted to compare different turfgrass species and their seed mixtures. In this research, the turfgrasses—perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. `Barball'), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. `Merion'), common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L. var. rubra `Shadow')—in monoculture or in mixtures of 1:1 (by weight) and a 1:1:1:1 (by weight) and two sport turfgrasses—BAR 11 (Barenbrug Co.) and MM (Mommersteeg Co.)—were used. The seeds were sown in March and October (spring and fall sowing) in 1998 and 1999. The experiments were conducted in a split-split block design with year as main plot, sowing season as subplot, and turfgrass types as subsubplot. The turfgrasses were compared by measuring visual quality, chlorophyll index after winter and summer, rooting depth, verdure and/or root fresh and dry weight, tiller density, and clippings fresh and dry weight. Fall sowing was superior to spring sowing and resulted in greater root growth, clipping yield, and chlorophyll content. Poa+Cynodon seed mixture was the best treatment and had high tiller density, root growth, and chlorophyll content. Lolium and Festuca monocultures, and Poa+Festuca and Cynodon+Festuca seed mixtures were not suitable with regard to low tiller density, sensitivity to high temperatures, low root growth, and low tiller density, respectively. The cool-warm-season seed mixture (Poa+Cynodon) can be used alternatively in overseeding programs in the areas with soil and environmental conditions similar to this research site.
Qingzhang Xu, Bingru Huang, and Zhaolong Wang
Heat injury in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds) has been associated with decreases in carbohydrate availability. Extending light duration may increase carbohydrate availability and thus improve growth of creeping bentgrass under heat stress. The objective of this study was to investigate whether turf performance and carbohydrate status could be improved by extending daily light duration for creeping bentgrass exposed to supraoptimal temperature conditions. `Penncross' plants were initially grown in growth chambers set at a day/night temperature of 20/15 °C and 14-hour photoperiod and then exposed to a day/night temperature of 33/28 °C (heat stress) and three different light durations: 14 (control), 18, and 22 hours (extended light duration) for 30 days. Turf quality and tiller density decreased with the duration of heat stress, as compared to the initial level at 20 °C, regardless of the light duration. However, both parameters increased with extended light duration from 14 to 18 or 22 hours. Extended light duration, particularly to 22 hours, also improved canopy net photosynthetic rate from -1.26 to 0.39 μmol·m-2·s-1 and daily total amount of carbon assimilation from -6.4 to 31.0 mmol·m-2·d-1, but reduced daily total amount of carbon loss or consumption to 50% through dark respiration compared to 14 hours treatment by the end of experiment. In addition, extending light duration from 14 to 22 hours increased water-soluble carbohydrate content in leaves both at the end of light duration and the dark period. These results demonstrated that extending light duration improved turf performance of creeping bentgrass under heat stress, as manifested by the increased tiller density and turf quality. This could be related to the increased carbohydrate production and accumulation. Supplemental lighting could be used to improve performance if creeping bentgrass is suffering from heat stress.
Y.L. Qian, M.C. Engelke, M.J.V. Foster, and S. Reynolds
Turfgrass is grown under extremely variable light intensities. This presents difficult management problems, and methods are needed to improve turf performance under variable shade conditions. Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of trinexapac-ethyl (TE) on turf performance and physiological responses of `Diamond' zoysiagrass [Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.] under several light intensities. In a polyethylene-roofed greenhouse, `Diamond' was sodded in 12 wooden boxes (1.2 × 1.2 × 0.16 m) (Expt. 1) and 18 fiber containers (55 × 38 × 12 cm) (Expt. 2). Treatments applied to boxes or containers included three levels of shade (40%, 75%, and 88%) with and without multiple TE applications at 48 g·ha-1 of active ingredient. Without TE treatment, vertical shoot growth increased linearly with increasing shade levels. Excessive shoot growth under 75% and 88% shade exacerbated energy depletion, as evidenced by the 45% and 67% lower rhizome mass and the 37% and 65% lower total nonstructural carbohydrate content (TNC), respectively, compared with turf under 40% shade. Trinexapac-ethyl reduced excessive vertical shoot growth and increased rhizome mass and TNC. Mean turf quality was increased by 0.7 and 1.4 units for turf receiving multiple TE applications under 75% and 88% shade, respectively. Trinexapac-ethyl did not increase turf quality or TNC under 40% shade. Canopy photosynthetic rate (Pn) was not affected 4 weeks after the initial TE treatment under any shade level. However, 34 weeks after the initial TE treatment a 50% higher Pn was observed for turf treated with TE under 88% shade, possibly because of higher tiller density. Repeated TE application increased turf quality and provided more favorable physiological responses (such as TNC and Pn) under 75% and 88% shade, where conditions favored vertical shoot growth. However, little or no improvement in turf quality was observed under 40% shade, where conditions favored slow vertical shoot growth. Chemical name used: 4-(cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl).
Kenton W. Peterson, Jack D. Fry, and Dale J. Bremer
previously evaluated and are considered to have good freeze tolerance in Manhattan, KS. Data collected during the growing season included visual quality, fall color retention, spring green-up, leaf extension rate (mm·d −1 ), leaf width (mm), tiller density
David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke
5312-49 (‘Zorro’ × Chinese Common) and 5327-19 (‘Meyer’ × ‘Diamond’) relative to ‘Meyer’ in 2008. Z. matrella lines are also known for their high tiller density under full sun ( Morris, 2000 , 2006 ; Morris and Shearman, 1995 ). In 2008 and 2009
Jinmin Fu, Jack Fry, and Bingru Huang
; Fry and Butler, 1989 ). Growth and physiological changes of turfgrasses in response to deficit irrigation are not well understood. Growth rate and tiller density may be impacted as may carbon metabolism. Reductions in growth during water deficits are
David W. Williams, Paul B. Burrus, and Kenneth L. Cropper
experimental line SWI-1012. These cultivars were chosen to represent a range of known turfgrass quality traits from previous work ( Morris, 2006 ). Of particular interest were differences in leaf texture and tiller density, with ‘Princess 77’ and ‘Riviera
James T. Brosnan, Adam W. Thoms, Gregory K. Breeden, and John C. Sorochan
; Trenholm et al., 2000 ). Applications of TE have been shown to increase tiller density ( Beasley et al., 2005 ; Ervin and Koski, 1998 ), which has been associated with improved traffic tolerance ( Trenholm et al., 2000 ). Ervin and Zhang (2007