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setup used for the universal testing machine (AG-X plus 50 kN; Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). In this study, the tensile force and displacement for the roots in the growth medium were measured. The tensile speed was 10 mm⋅min −1 . Measurements were ended once

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specimen was 16 mm with the position of the waist arranged in the center between the clamps. An uniaxial tensile force was applied at a constant strain rate of 3 mm·min −1 until failure of the ES or CM. Applied force and crosshead travel (in millimeters

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series (Maxwell model), in parallel (Voigt–Kelvin model) or in combinations of both arrangements [Burgers model ( Schmiedel, 1992 )]. When subjected to a tensile force, stress/strain relationships are obtained that depend on the rate at which the force is

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resistance of the cuticle to tensile force ( Keren-Keiserman et al., 2004a ). Although no fissure was apparent on fruits in stage I, regardless of cultivar, the skin color of ‘Gurandoru’ showed a patchy pattern of white and green at stage I ( Fig. 2 ). At

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