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Olya Rysin and Frank J. Louws

to generate reliable universal scientific evidence that would allow growers to assess economic benefits of grafting for technology adoption ( Kubota et al., 2008 ; Rivard and Louws, 2008 ). Because high cost of grafted transplants have been indicated

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S. Christopher Marble and Todd P. West

Multistate collaborations enable extension professionals to reach their audience across a region with similar production challenges. The objective of this article is to introduce the three proceeding manuscripts delivered at the American Society of Horticultural Sciences annual conference in Atlanta, GA, as part of a workshop entitled “Advancing Technology Adoption and Achieving Extension Impact: A Working Group Success Story.” Topics discussed in the following manuscripts include the development of a multistate working group and the advantages associated with participation, development and impact of book or electronic book publications, and survey results from more traditional hands-on workshops. The goal of this workshop was to provide guidance to others who wish to establish multistate, multidisciplinary collaborative teams as well as use new education formats.

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Katie Ellis, Tara Auxt Baugher and Karen Lewis

increase fruit quality and yields. The project also aims to accelerate technology adoption by analyzing its return on investment and identifying and mitigating barriers to adoption. A CASC socioeconomic survey was drafted in Jan. 2009 to solicit stakeholder

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John C. Majsztrik, Elizabeth W. Price and Dennis M. King

emission restrictions can result in higher profits rather than higher costs. Current research indicates that the potential direct and indirect private and public economic and environmental benefits from high rates of WSIN technology adoption would be worth

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R. Karina Gallardo, Kara Grant, David J. Brown, James R. McFerson, Karen M. Lewis, Todd Einhorn and Mario Miranda Sazo

concern and was 28% more likely to be ranked as the most important concern compared with the “other” category ( Table 5 ). Literature regarding the economics of technology adoption indicated that customized services as well as collaborative efforts between

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Laura A. Warner, Alexa J. Lamm, Peyton Beattie, Sarah A. White and Paul R. Fisher

Nursery and greenhouse growers have an important role to play in conserving water resources. Many technologies are available to help growers conserve water. Yet, within the industry, there may be varying levels of knowledge about a specific strategy, along with inconsistent adoption and continued use. An understanding of these factors can be incorporated into educational programming for this audience. This study evaluated the reported knowledge level of U.S. greenhouse and nursery growers about eight specific water conservation technologies and then explored the rate at which growers had adopted and continued or discontinued their use. Technologies were ranked from high to low adoption rate, beginning with drip irrigation, rainwater capture, water reuse, and microirrigation, followed by soil moisture sensors, climate-based irrigation, subirrigation, and finally an irrigation audit. Overall, greater levels of knowledge corresponded to both greater adoption and continued use of a technology. Other factors, such as economic cost and technical feasibility are undoubtedly important. Findings highlight an opportunity to focus educational programs on the systems-based strategies that are beneficial to growers, but growers are least knowledgeable about to increase adoption of effective water conservation methods that currently have low levels of grower implementation.

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John Majsztrik, Erik Lichtenberg and Monica Saavoss

Irrigation management systems that use wireless transmission of substrate moisture data are beginning to become commercially available for ornamental growers, particularly for use in soilless substrates. These systems allow growers to precisely monitor and control irrigation in real time and are being shown to save time and other resources. On-farm evaluations indicate that these systems have potential benefits extending beyond reductions in water use and associated irrigation inputs: Some growing systems experience increases in plant growth rates, with corresponding reductions in production time, whereas some experience reductions in disease pressure and corresponding plant losses. We asked ornamental growers across the nation what they see as potential benefits and limitations of these systems as a means of assessing the likely state of acceptance of this technology at the time of its initial introduction. Grower perceptions were overwhelmingly positive, with the majority of respondents agreeing that wireless sensor systems can increase irrigation efficiency, improve product quality, reduce product losses, reduce irrigation management costs, reduce disease prevalence, increase ability to manage growth, reduce irrigation management costs, and reduce monitoring costs. System cost and reliability were major concerns. Grower perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of irrigation sensor networks varied across size and type of operation as well as geographically and by the type of water source used. Making wireless sensor systems affordable and robust will likely be critical determinants of the speed and reach of adoption of these technologies.

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Joseph Krahe and Benjamin Campbell

labor issues in the green industry. Existing studies include characteristics of the workforce ( Posadas et al., 2014 ), adoption of labor ( Caplan et al., 2014 ), and economic impacts of technology adoption ( Posadas, 2012 ). With respect to how

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Benedict Posadas

), operational characteristics ( Posadas et al., 2010a ), socioeconomic determinants of technology adoption ( Posadas et al., 2005a ), and current mechanization systems ( Coker et al., 2010 ). Additional reports will be forthcoming covering all the participating

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Ruben Macias-Duarte, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz and Fabian Robles-Contreras

The onion bulb production In Mexico is about 39,000 ha annually. Yield is variable according to the technological capacity and economic condition of the grower. However, The technology adoption (new varieties, efficient irrigation system and establishment methods) is increased during the last years. Traditionally in Mexico the grower use the manual transplant of seedling, that which increases the cost and time of this labor. The objective of the present Experiment was to evaluate Two establishment methods (direct seed and transplant seedling) and the effect on 24 bulb varieties. The evaluation was carried out in INIFAP-CIRNO Experimental Station in furrows with 1.00 m of separation among them, with double row of plants, the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus used were 180 and 80 kg·ha-1 respectively, we used the drip irrigation system. In this experiment we observed that the system of direct seed obtained better yield (18%), bulb weight (21%) and precocity (11 days) in comparing to the transplant methods, however in the first treatment the floral stem emission was greater (6.7% vs 1.1%) of the transplant methods. The white varieties with high yield were: White onion 214 and Cal 128 with 71.4 and 65.7 ton/ha. The purple varieties was F1 Cal 192 with 68.3 t·ha-1 and the yellow varieties was Ringer Cal 160 with 63.2 t·ha-1.