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Kylara A. Papenfuss and Brent L. Black

fruit size decreases ( Intrigliolo and Castel, 2005 ; Torrecillas et al., 2000 ). For crops that are processed and dried such as prune and tart cherry, the dry weight yield is more economically important than the fresh weight yield. For prune, gradually

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James J. Luby, Alicia L. Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Nnadozie Oraguzie, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt, and Amy Iezzoni

Cherry producers in the United States require innovation through the development and commercialization of new cultivars. Both sweet ( Prunus avium L.) and tart cherries ( P. cerasus L.) are economically important in many regions of the United

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Barrett R. Gruber, Libby R.R. Davies, and Patricia S. McManus

The fungus Blumeriella jaapii [anamorph Phloeosporella padi (Lib.) Arx] incites cherry leaf spot (CLS), a serious disease of tart cherry ( Prunus cerasus ) in the Great Lakes region of North America ( Jones, 1995 ) and Europe ( Annesi et al

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Yahya K. Al-Hinai and Teryl R. Roper

This experiment was conducted to determine temporal weed management parameters for tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) orchards. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L.) were planted in tree rows of a 4-year-old tart cherry orchard. Weeds either were not controlled or controlled with nonresidual herbicides during the following intervals: all-summer; May, June, July, or August; preharvest (April-July); or postharvest (late July to frost). Trees in all-summer, June, and preharvest weed-free plots had more shoot growth, more nodes, longer internodes, greater leaf area, and higher concentrations of leaf nitrogen than did those in the weedy control and postharvest, July, or August treatments. A larger increase in trunk circumference was observed in all-summer and preharvest weed-free plots than in postharvest and weedy plots. Early-summer weed control was important for tree vegetative growth. Tree yield (fruit weight and number) was greater on trees without weed competition postharvest than in those treated in May, June, July, or in weedy controls. Late-season (after late July) weed control is therefore important for fruit yield.

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Yahya K. Al-Hinai and Teryl R. Roper

This experiment was conducted to determine temporal and spatial weed management characteristics for tart cherry orchards. Annual ryegrass and lambsquarter were planted in tree rows of a 14-year-old tart cherry orchard. Vegetation was controlled with nonresidual herbicides (Gramoxone + B-1956) either all season, May, June, July, August, before harvest, after harvest, or not controlled. Shoot growth measurements showed significantly more growth by trees without weed competition during the entire season, May, June, and before harvest compared to the weedy control and postharvest, July, or August treatments. Weedy early season plots reduced the shoot growth by half. All season, before harvest, May, and June weed-free plots showed higher amounts of leaf N compared with weedy controls or late-season treatments. Early season weed control is more important than late season. Vegetation-free areas of 0, 2, 3, and 4 m2 were maintained during 1998 by postemergence herbicides. Tissue analysis showed higher N concentration in leaves with vegetation controlled to 2 m2 or more compared to the weedy control. The critical vegetation free area for young cherry trees is between 0 and 2 m2.

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Nancy W. Callan

Exposure of `Meteor' tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) flower buds to deacclimating conditions resulted in an increase in the temperature of the low-temperature exotherms (LTEs) produced by the flower primordia during controlled freezing. Primordium supercooling temperature was related to chill unit accumulation, an indicator of depth of flower bud endodormancy. LTEs ceased to be detected after deacclimation earlier in 1986-87, a season of more rapid chill unit accumulation, than in 1987-88. Before deacclimation, the range of primordium LTE temperatures within a flower bud was normally ≤1C, but in deacclimated buds considerable variability in LTE temperatures was observed. However, primordia within a flower bud lost the ability to supercool simultaneously. This change was generally concurrent with the appearance of mature xylem vessel elements (XVE) in the upper bud axis and in the flower primordium but did not entirely depend on vessel element maturation.

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Mark A. Hubbard, James A. Flore, John C. Wise, and James W. Johnson

European red mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations were monitored in a tart cherry (Prunus cerasus `Montmorency') orchard and the effects on photosynthesis determined. Mites levels were controlled in some trees by miticide applications to establish different cumulative mite*days in the trees. Photosynthetic inhibition caused by insect injury was also simulated by spraying other trees with 78 ppm Terbacil at one of four different times during the season, The mite*days accumulated in 1993 ranged from 937 to 2205, however, there were no differences in single leaf or whole tree CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll a fluorescence, or chlorophyll levels among the different levels of mite damage. Likewise, there were no differences in these same parameters among the Terbacil-treated trees except that photosynthesis was reduced on treated trees for 10-14 days, after which photosynthesis recovered to the level of the controls. There were no differences in yield or fruit quality among any treatments, and cold hardiness and return fruiting characteristics will be measured.

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Michael E. Tarter and Stefano Poni

/clonal variability, number of clusters grown on a shoot ( Pratt, 1971 ; Tarter and Keuter, 2008 ), degree of branching on a cluster ( Clingeleffer et al., 2000 ), and weather course at resumption of bud growth in spring ( Carmo Vasconcelos et al., 2009 ). According

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Jose E. Sanchez, Charles E. Edson, George W. Bird, Mark E. Whalon, Thomas C. Willson, Richard R. Harwood, Kadir Kizilkaya, James E. Nugent, William Klein, Alan Middleton, Theodore L. Loudon, Dale R. Mutch, and Joseph Scrimger

Designing and implementing more productive, nutrient-efficient, and environmentally sound orchard management systems requires a better understanding of plant and soil responses to more biologically driven management practices. This study explored the effect of orchard floor and N management on soil organic C and N, populations of nematodes, NO3 leaching, and yields in tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L. `Montmorency') production. A baseline conventional orchard system consisting of an herbicide-treated tree row and a full rate of N fertilizer was compared to two modified-conventional and ten alternative orchard floor and N management systems. Living ground cover and the use of mulch with or without composted manure increased total C and the active C and N pools in the soil. For instance, supplemental mulch or mulch applied using a side-delivery mower increased soil C by >20% above the conventional baseline. The size of the active C pool increased 45% and 60% with the use of the species mix 2 ground cover and compost, respectively. Increases in the active N pool ranged from a low of 25% in the soils using mulch or a ground cover mix to a high of 60% when compost was used. As a result, the ability of these soils to provide N to growing plants was enhanced. Total soil N increased in the treatment using natural weeds as ground cover and the full rate of N fertilizer. It is likely that weeds were able to convert significant amounts of fertilizer N into organic forms. Increasing the active C and N pools stimulates microbial activity, and may favor populations of nonplant parasitic nematodes over plant parasitic species. Using a trunk-to-trunk cover crop mix under the cherry trees reduced NO3 leaching by >90% compared to a conventional, herbicide treated soil, even when N fertilizer was used at full rate. Nitrate leaching also dramatically diminished when N fertilizer was fertigated at a reduced rate or when compost was used as N source. Alternative orchard floor and N management did not reduce yields when compared to the baseline conventional treatment.

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Murray Clayton, William V. Biasi, I. Tayfun Agar, Stephen M. Southwick, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham

`Bing' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees were treated with hydrogen cyanamide (CH2N2) or calcium ammonium nitrate (CaNH4NO3) during dormancy, or gibberellic acid (GA3) 26 days before harvest during three consecutive years. Fruit were evaluated at harvest for sensory taste quality using twenty trained panelists sampling for firmness, sweetness, tartness, and cherry flavor. Nondestructive instrumental firmness preceded destructive sensory firmness on the same untreated and GA3-treated cherries in one year when used as a supplementary evaluation. Sensory firmness was consistently higher in GA3 fruit and to a lesser extent in CH2N2 fruit than in CaNH4NO3 and untreated fruit. Instrumental firmness of GA3 fruit did not increase significantly compared with untreated fruit yet instrumental firmness of each treatment correlated relatively well with perceived sensory firmness. Sensory sweetness and cherry flavor scored very similarly, yet both attributes simultaneously varied between treatments across the years. Perceived sensory tartness of treated fruit was variable among years; yet, on average, was rated among treated and untreated fruit as similar. Under the assumption that elevated sensory firmness, sweetness, and cherry flavor intensity reflects improved sweet cherry quality, GA3 fruit were rated of higher quality than untreated fruit given their increased firmness and similar or occasionally elevated sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. CH2N2 fruit maintained quality similar to that of untreated fruit, despite often having marginally higher firmness, due to similar or reduced ratings for sweetness and cherry flavor intensity. Notwithstanding similar firmness between CaNH4NO3 and untreated cherries, sensory quality of CaNH4NO3-treated cherries was reduced due to their often-diminished levels of perceived sweetness and cherry flavor.