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Ying Yang, Xian-Ge Hu, Bingsong Zheng, Yue Li, Tongli Wang, Anket Sharma, Huwei Yuan, and Jian-Feng Mao

nucleotides (nt) in length, which regulate target gene expression via the RNA interference pathway at translational repression or posttranscriptional degradation stage ( Lagos-Quintana et al., 2001 ). The important miRNA roles have been discovered in

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Qianqian Shi, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Xiang Li, Lijuan Zhai, Xiaoning Luo, Jianrang Luo, Lixia He, Yanlong Zhang, and Long Li

squamosal promoter binding protein-like gene ( SPL9 ), which is a negative regulator of anthocyanin accumulation ( Gou et al., 2011 ), and miRNA828 downregulates anthocyanin accumulation through its target genes AtTAS4-siR81 (−) and R2R3-MYB TFs ( Luo et al

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

Wright, 2002 ). There are six target sites in the ALS gene that, when mutated, commonly confer resistance to ALS inhibitors: Ala 122 , Pro 197 , Ala 205 , Asp 376 , Trp 574 , and Ser 653 ( Tranel and Wright, 2002 ). In 2011, the first P. annua biotype

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Morgan L. Cromwell, Lorraine P. Berkett, Heather M. Darby, and Takamaru Ashikaga

with only weak protective activity against apple scab ( Cooley et al., 2008 ; Ellis et al., 1998 ; Lewis and Hickey, 1972 ). Both elemental sulfur and lime sulfur fungicides have adverse, non-target effects on beneficial predatory mites ( Holdsworth

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Rose Palumbo, Wai-Foong Hong, Guo-Liang Wang, Jinguo Hu, Richard Craig, James Locke, Charles Krause, and David Tay

genetic similarity of the accessions through molecular characterization by target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP) markers ( Hu and Vick, 2003 ). TRAP is a technique that combines the AT- and GC-rich primers of SRAP (sequence-related amplification

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Rui Li, Lu Fan, Jingdong Lin, Mingyang Li, Daofeng Liu, and Shunzhao Sui

-developed ( Liang et al., 2013 ; Liu et al., 2016a ). A large number of target populations can be developed by mutation induction ( Wani et al., 2014 ). Breeders can use them for plant artificial selection to breed new cultivars ( Wani et al., 2014 ). To breed new

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Bridget K. Behe

Firms have limited resources that cannot be allocated efficiently to the market as a whole, but can be targeted to selected customer groups. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into distinct customer components. Selected products and services that best meet the needs of a selected customer group are targeted to that particular segment in a marketing strategy. Market segmentation and product-targeting concepts help management efficiently allocate scarce resources as part of a comprehensive strategy to expand revenues and profits.

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Theodore J. Kisha and Christopher S. Cramer

populations when compared with SSRs ( Gaudeul et al., 2004 ; Woodhead et al., 2005 ). However, the production and scoring of AFLP markers in a genome as large as that of Allium species is problematic ( Volk et al., 2004 ). Targeted region amplification

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Charles J. Wasonga, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales, Timothy G. Porch, and Phillip D. Griffiths

; Stavely and Pastor-Corrales, 1989 ). Snap bean cultivars with targeted resistance gene combinations to protect crops against common bean rust could reduce or eliminate the heavy dependence on fungicides while simultaneously lowering production costs and

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Richard Snyder*, David Ingram, Blake Layton, Ken Hood, Mary Peet, Mary Donnell, Gene Giacomelli, Joe Kemble, Pat Harris, and Frank Killebrew

The Mississippi (MS) Greenhouse Tomato Short Course has been held every March since 1989. The purpose of this 2-day, intensive training is to educate growers so they will be able to successfully grow greenhouse tomatoes as a viable horticultural business. With a mixture of experienced, novice, and prospective growers, it is just as important to provide current growers with research based, practical information, as to expose potential growers to the realities of the business, helping them make an informed decision before investing time and money. Beginning as a small program for a handful growers in the conference room at the Truck Crops Experiment Station, it has gradually grown in number and diversity of participants and invited speakers, depth of subject matter, and geographic origin of growers and speakers. The 2003 program had 142 participants from over 20 states and 4 countries, making it the largest such program in the United States. This is in keeping with the recent trend. The typical lineup of topics includes the basics of producing a commercial crop of hydroponic greenhouse tomatoes, the budget for establishing and operating a greenhouse business, marketing and promotion, pest and disease identification and management, and the grower's point of view. Other topics, varying year to year, include heating, cooling, and ventilation of greenhouses, record keeping, new technologies, biological control, diagnostics, and alternative crops. For 2004, the subject of organic production will be introduced. With targeted extension programming such as this Short Course, the greenhouse tomato industry in MS has grown from 15 growers in 1989 to 135 growers today, producing $6.5 million in annual gross sales. Complete information can be found at