Sustainable landscapes include design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs ( Sustainable Sites Initiative, 2009
Kristen A. Saksa, Thomas W. Ilvento, and Susan S. Barton
Nina Bassuk and Peter Trowbridge
and quantified ( deGroot et al., 2002 ). A sustainable landscape helps to regulate climate and energy use by mitigating the effects of sun and wind, reducing pollutants, and taking up carbon dioxide. Such landscapes also reduce storm water and flooding
Veronda B. Holcombe and Mary T. Haque
The concept of designing and implementing sustainable landscapes for low-income communities grew from collaboration between several community partners and Clemson Univ. It was our desire to research, plan, design, and implement sustainable landscapes for Habitat for Humanity homes. The primary goal of designing for these low-income homes was to design for sustainability. We wanted our plans to promote energy efficiency, water conservation, and low maintenance costs. These implemented principals would help the homeowner drastically cut living costs. The design and implementation of wildlife habitats was also encouraged to promote knowledge and research on environmental issues. In the beginning of our design phase we interviewed our client about her user needs/desires and later presented her with the design. This began the exhibition and education phase of the project. By exhibiting the project we hoped to education the homeowner about the sustainability issues that are pertinent to her case. Our biggest educational outreach program took place during homecoming at Clemson Univ. Partnering with other student organizations and using donated plant material from a local nursery, we constructed gardens and “planted” trees around a Habitat for Humanity house that is built each year during homecoming and later moved by trailer to its final site. We also displayed our designs inside the house and created pamphlets and brochures for visitors to pick up detailing such topics as Butterfly Gardening. Spurred on by the success of this project a web page detailing our community and organizational involvement was created. Our projects have been covered in many newspaper articles, cable TV, and in a video on service learning being produced for national distribution. As a student it has given me and my other student colleagues an opportunity to engage in and acquire valuable hands-on experience in horticulture and environmental education/stewardship all the while providing a much needed public outreach service that assists and partners with community members in order to enhance their personal home environments.
Ji-Jhong Chen, Heidi Kratsch, Jeanette Norton, Youping Sun, and Larry Rupp
Shepherdia ×utahensis ‘Torrey’ (‘Torrey’ hybrid buffaloberry) is an actinorhizal plant that can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in symbiotic root nodules with Frankia. Actinorhizal plants with N2-fixing capacity are valuable in sustainable nursery production and urban landscape use. However, whether nodule formation occurs in S. ×utahensis ‘Torrey’ and its interaction with nitrogen (N) fertilization remain largely unknown. Increased mineral N in fertilizer or nutrient solution might inhibit nodulation and lead to excessive N leaching. In this study, S. ×utahensis ‘Torrey’ plants inoculated with soils containing Frankia were irrigated with an N-free nutrient solution with or without added 2 mm ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) or with 0.0 to 8.4 g·L−1 controlled-release fertilizer (CRF; 15N–3.9P–10K) to study nodulation and plant morphological and physiological responses. The performance of inoculated plants treated with various amounts of CRF was compared with uninoculated plants treated with the manufacturer’s prescribed rate. Plant growth, gas exchange parameters, and shoot N content increased quadratically or linearly along with increasing CRF application rates (all P < 0.01). No parameters increased significantly at CRF doses greater than 2.1 g·L−1. Furthermore, the number of nodules per plant decreased quadratically (P = 0.0001) with increasing CRF application rates and nodule formation were completely inhibited at 2.9 g·L−1 CRF or by NH4NO3 at 2 mm. According to our results, nodulation of S. ×utahensis ‘Torrey’ was sensitive to N in the nutrient solution or in increasing CRF levels. Furthermore, plant growth, number of shoots, leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, root dry weight, and N content of shoots of inoculated S. ×utahensis ‘Torrey’ plants treated with 2.1 g·L−1 CRF were similar to those of uninoculated plants treated with the manufacturer’s prescribed rate. Our results show that S. ×utahensis ‘Torrey’ plants inoculated with soil containing Frankia need less CRF than the prescribed rate to maintain plant quality, promote nodulation for N2 fixation, and reduce N leaching.
William E. Klingeman, David B. Eastwood, John R. Brooker, Charles R. Hall, Bridget K. Behe, and Patricia R. Knight
A survey was administered to assess plant characteristics that consumers consider important when selecting landscape plants for purchase. Visitors to home and garden shows in Knoxville and Nashville, Tenn.; Detroit, Mich.; and Jackson, Miss., completed 610 questionnaires. Respondents also indicated their familiarity with integrated pest management (IPM) concepts, pest control philosophy, recognition of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) pests and diseases, including dogwood powdery mildew (Microsphaera pulchra), and willingness-to-pay a price differential for a powdery-mildew-resistant flowering dogwood. Fewer than half of the respondents in any city indicated familiarity with IPM, although they were familiar with organic farming and pest scouting components of an IPM program. Willingness-to-pay was relatively consistent across all four locations. The uniformity of average tree premiums, which ranged from $11.87 in Jackson to $16.38 in Detroit, supports the proposition that customers are willing to pay a substantially higher price for a landscape tree that will maintain a healthier appearance without the use of chemical sprays. Factors affecting consumer demand for landscape nursery products and services can be paired with consumer awareness of IPM terminology and practices to create an effective market strategy for newly developed powdery-mildew-resistant dogwood cultivars.
Susan S. Barton, Rebecca S. Pineo, and Leslie Carter
University campuses provide an excellent opportunity to research and demonstrate sustainable landscape practices. Most campuses include significant land resources, a variety of building types, and diverse plantings. University campuses must be
Xiaolin Huang and Julieta Trevino Sherk
sustainable landscape design is highlighted in our results. We found that planting areas provided the highest SP scores, especially in the “shade trees” and “shrubs” classifications ( Fig. 1 ). This is consistent with in the Sustainable Cities Institute with
Brian K. Maynard, Richard A. Casagrand, and Roberta A. Clark
The development of a manual and database of recommended trees and shrubs was undertaken as a collaborative effort of the University of Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Cooperative Extension and regional nursery stock producers. Initial selection was limited to species exhibiting few or no pest and disease problems, and without site requirements or other factors that could lead to higher maintenance in established landscapes. The preliminary list was reviewed by more than 30 representatives of regional arboreta, universities, growers, landscapers and arborists. In its third printing, the manual includes lists of recommended species, excluded species (with explanations), species for particular situations, and a guide to sustainable landscaping. The consortium brought together to create the manual is also developing a point-of-sale logo and poster to advertise recommended plant species and sustainable landscaping. This project has raised important issues about the interface between the industry and academia in promoting new and less readily available plants.
The database is maintained in FileMaker Pro (MAC), and will be made available in several DOS or MAC formats to those supplying a unformatted3.5” DD or HD disk.
Sustainable Landscape Management . Thomas W. Cook and Ann Marie VanDerZanden, 2011. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 232 pages. $85.00. Hardcover. ISBN 978-0-470-48093-9 Sustainable Landscape Management starts out in the first chapter by providing some
Susan D. Day, Paula Diane Relf, and Marc T. Aveni
A multi-faceted extension education program to reduce consumer contributions to nonpoint source pollution by encouraging proper landscape management was initiated in Prince William County, Va., and funded through the USDA-extension service. The program now is being replicated in several counties in Virginia, primarily in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The program recruits participants through educational field days, advertisement and other means. Educational techniques include one-on-one assistance from Master Gardener volunteers and the use of Extension publications developed for this program. Publications developed include The Virginia Gardener Easy Reference to Sustainable Landscape Management and Water Quality Protection—a concise reference of Virginia Cooperative Extension landscaping recommendations that includes a calendar for recording fertilizer and pesticide applications, IPM, and other maintenance activities. The Virginia Gardener Guide to Water-wise Landscaping, was recently added to supplement the program in the area of water conservation. In Prince William County, over 700 people have participated. Most of those who complete the program report being more satisfied with their lawn appearance and spending less money. Participation also resulted in consumers being more likely to seek soil test information before applying fertilizer. Other effects include greater participation in leaf composting and grass clipping recycling and greater awareness of nonpoint source pollution.