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James L. Brewbaker and Chifume Nagai

“Waimanalo Supersweet” will be released at the time of the 1992 ASHS meeting in Hawaii. A singlecross supersweet corn based on the brittle gene, “Waimanalo Supersweet” represents over 50 generations of inbreeding and backcrossing in Hawaii. Successive projects involved the development of sugary inbreds and their conversion to Mv. Ht. Rp-d and brittle genes. The inbred parents have very limited temperate germplasm and are relatively daylength sensitive. This single cross hybrid and its related 3X (“Hawaiian Supesweet #10”) and OP variety (“Hawaiian Supersweet #9”) show tolerance to Puccinia sorghi rust and Fusarium Moniliforme kernel rot greatly in excess of commercial sweet corns to which they have been compared, and they have performed capably throughout the tropics. Available data on pest tolerance, growth and quality will be summarized.

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James L. Brewbaker

addition, few temperate hybrids yield well under the short days and high temperatures of the tropics. Additional problems can include stalk rots, downy mildews, and other viruses and blights. The six tropical supersweet inbreds of corn ( Zea mays L

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J.K. Collins, P. Perkins-Veazie, E.V. Wann, and N. Maness

Supersweet corn with the shrunken-2 gene (sh2) has shown good quality after frozen storage. A study was undertaken to further evaluate the quality of supersweet corn (cv Florida Staysweet) unblanched or blanched then frozen. Samples were evaluated every 4 months for 12 months for peroxidase activity. sugar composition, water soluble polysaccharides and organoleptic qualities. Peroxidese activity changed in unblanched corn at each sampling date, which was consistently higher than in blanched corn. Sucrose and total sugars declined during storage. Sucrose was highest in blenched samples and reducing sugars were highest in unblanched samples. WSP content was low in all samples, but lower in blenched compared to unblanched samples. Taste panelists discerned differences between blanched and unblanched corn at 8 months when blanched samples were rated as more yellow than unblanched. However, no differences were found for taste between blanched and unblanched samples for taste at 12 months. These results indicate that sh2 sweetcorn maintained good eating quality for 12 months of frozen storage with or without blanching.

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L.A. Risse and R.E. McDonald

Quality changes of supersweet corn (Zea mays L.) were monitored during storage at 1, 4, or 10C, unwrapped or wrapped in stretch or shrink film. Film-wrapping maintained freshness and reduced moisture loss better than lack of wrapping. Wrapping in shrink film resulted in lower O2 and higher CO2 concentrations within packages than wrapping with stretch film. Film-wrapping in shrink film maintained total soluble solids content better than stretch-wrapping or no wrapping.

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Carlos A. Parera and Daniel J. Cantliffe

Poor emergence and low seedling vigor are characteristics of many supersweet sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars carrying the shrunken-2 (sh2) gene. Four sh2 sweet corn cultivar seeds [`How Sweet It Is' (HSII), `Crisp N' Sweet 711' (CNS-711), `Sweet Belle' (SB), and `Dazzle' (DZ)] were solid-matrix-primed (SMP), SMP with sodium hypochlorite (SMPcl), treated with a fungicide combination (F) (Imazalil + Captan + Apron + Thiram), or primed with the aforementioned fungicides (SMPf). The seed treatments were tested in the laboratory and the field. Seed imbibition and leachate electrical conductivity were lower in SMP seeds than in nonprimed seeds. In the field, emergence percentage and rate of CNS-711 and SB (high-vigor seeds) were not improved by the seed treatments compared to the nontreated seeds. Emergence percentage and rate of HSII and DZ (considered low-vigor seeds) were improved as a result of SMPcl, SMPf, or F treatments compared to nonprimed seeds. Compared to the F treatment, the SMPcl presowing treatment increased DZ seedling emergence rate and percentage. The combined SMP and seed disinfection via NaOCl seems to be a promising fungicide seed-treatment substitute that improves the stand establishment and seedling vigor of sh2 sweet corn cultivars. Chemical names used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl]-1 H imidazole (Imazalil); N-[(trichloromethyl)thio]-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide(Captan); N- (2,6-dimethylphenyl)- N -(methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester (Apron); tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Thiram).

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James L. Brewbaker

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Patricia E. Hung, Vincent A. Fritz, Thor Kommedahl, Albert H. Markhart III, and Luther Waters Jr.

Experiments were conducted to determine if the fungicide imazalil infused into shrunken-2 sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf.) seed via acetone could protect against soil- and seedborne fungi enough to improve germination and vigor. `Florida Staysweet' and `Crisp-n-Sweet 710' seeds were infused for 0.25 hours with 1% or 2% (w/w) imazalil-acetone (LA) solutions, air-dried, and subjected to a modified laboratory seedling growth cold test using sterile soil or soil inoculated with Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon. Both IA concentrations significantly reduced the incidence of diseased seedlings in soil inoculated with F. moniliforme when compared to nontreated controls. Neither treatment significantly reduced the incidence of seedborne fungi. Chemical name used: 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl-H-imidazole (imazalil).

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K. Roberts, J. Williamson, J. Wright, C. Biles, and V. Russo

Senescence and levels of minerals, sugars, and proteins were determined in stalk internodes of corn (Zea mays L.) cv. Illini Gold, a shrunken2 hybrid, from from mid-whorl (V9; internodes completely juvenile) to fresh-market maturity (FM; internodes exhibiting stages of senescence). Senescence was rated in internodes near the base of the stalk (I7), below the ear (I9), and between the ear and tassel (I11). Tissues were extracted and analyzed by carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (C-nmr) and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Senescence rating increased from V9 to FM. Through silk emergence (R1) C-nmr carbohydrate spectra were similar, regardless of internode, with chemical shifts between 61 and 104 ppm, mostly of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. At FM, additional lines were found that were not associated with a saccaride. The highest concentration of sucrose was at R1, fructose at tasseling (VT), and R1, and for glucose from VT to FM. The protein profile present through R1 in I7 was not present at FM. In I9, the protein profile was similar throughout. In I11, numbers, or density, of protein bands decreased through FM. Mineral concentrations did not change, decreased, or fluctuated. Levels of N, Cl, or Na at VT, R1, and FM, respectively, were negatively correlated with senescence. In I7 and I9, senescence ratings were negatively correlated with levels of Mg, NO 3, or SO2– 4. Senescence appears to be associated with concentrations of some minerals, a reduction in levels of sucrose, and with the presence or absence of some proteins; however, cause and effect remains to be established. This research was hosted by USDA/SCARL at Lane, Okla., and made use of NMR equipment provided through USAF/AFOSR Grant F49620-95-1-0316 and NIH/NIGMS Grant GM 08003.