Superficial scald is a major physiological disorder of ‘Anjou’ pears that occurs after ≥3 or 5 months of cold storage in air or controlled atmosphere (CA), respectively ( Hansen and Mellenthin, 1979 ). The commercial air storage target for ‘Anjou
Jinhe Bai, Xinhua Yin, Bruce D. Whitaker, Kristi Deschuytter, and Paul M. Chen
Steve J. McArtney, John D. Obermiller, James R. Schupp, Michael L. Parker, and Todd B. Edgington
-related processes, including softening and development of superficial scald during storage of apples and pears ( Watkins, 2006a , 2006b ). 1-MCP is thought to act by binding irreversibly to ethylene receptors ( Blankenship and Dole, 2003 ). The commercial
S. Wee and R.M. Beaudry
Autoxidation products alpha-farnesene of have been implicated in superficial scald induction for apple (Malus domestica cv. Cortland Apple) fruit. We suspect the apple cuticle acts as a sink where α-farnesene can accumulate and eventually autoxidize into hydroperoxides, conjugated trienes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (ketone), and other compounds. These oxidized byproducts may diffuse back into the peel, thereby initiating the scald process. Cortland apples were stored at 0.8°C. Volatile cuticular components were analyzed at 2-week intervals by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. Only two scald-related volatiles were found, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and α-farnesene. The identification of these compounds may allow the determination of cuticular involvement in superficial scald, as well as a possible correlation between the volatiles and apple scald development. α-farnesene concentrations initially increased and was followed by a decline, possibly due to its autoxidation.
Nazir Mir, Rufino Perez, and Randolph M. Beaudry
`Cortland' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.), either untreated or treated with diphenylamine (DPA), were stored for 120 days in air at 0 °C. Peel samples were taken from these fruit immediately after storage, placed in glass vials and incubated for 48 hours, or were isolated from fruit held 2 to 72 hours at 22 °C and incubated in the vials for 2 hours. Emission of 3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-1,3(E),6(E),10-tetraene, known as trans,trans-α-farnesene, or simply α-farnesene, and its oxidation product, MHO, were measured in the vial headspace. α-Farnesene content in the gas phase of vials with peel samples reached a maximal level 2 hours after vials were sealed and was higher in DPA-treated than untreated fruit. The content of α-farnesene in the vial headspace remained unchanged for DPA-treated fruit peel during the 2-day holding period. However, α-farnesene declined rapidly after 10 hours incubation for control samples. Incubating peel samples of control fruit under N2 atmosphere prevented the decline in α-farnesene. The MHO release by the peel of control fruit was rapid during the first 2 hours and continued to increase for 24 hours. In contrast, the MHO released from DPA-treated fruit peels was 8000-fold lower than from peel samples of control fruit. The increase in vapor phase MHO was concomitant with peel browning in controls. For whole fruit held at 22 °C for 2 to 72 hours, cumulative MHO release from fruit peels followed a pattern that was similar to the pattern of superficial scald development in these fruit.
Nazir Mir, Michael Wendorf, Rufino Perez, and Randolph M. Beaudry
The relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence of `Cortland', `Redchief Delicious', and `Empire' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit and the development of superficial scald was studied during 120 days of refrigerated air (RA) storage at 0 °C and during 7 days of poststorage holding at 22 °C. Minimal fluorescence (Fo), maximal fluorescence (Fm), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, where Fv=Fm=Fo) and coefficient of photochemical fluorescence quenching (qp) were measured. During storage, while Fv/Fm and Fm declined in `Cortland' and `Redchief Delicious' fruit over time, these two measures of chlorophyll fluorescence remained stable in `Empire' fruit. Of the three cultivars, only `Empire' is resistant to and did not develop superficial scald. A decline in Fv/Fm preceded scald development in `Cortland' and `Redchief Delicious' fruit. After 30 days of storage, qp began to decrease in fruit from all three cultivars. Prestorage diphenylamine (DPA) application had no effect on Fv/Fm, Fo, and Fm and only marginally improved maintenance of qp, but completely prevented the development of superficial scald. Poststorage holding at 22 °C accelerated the rate of change in most fluorescence measurements. The decline in the Fv/Fm ratio and/or qp with storage time may be in response to senescence-related factors that also enhance scald susceptibility, however, Fv/Fm does not appear to be directly related to superficial scald susceptibility per se.
Mervyn C. D'Souza, Morris Ingle, and Suman Singha
Chromaticity values (L*, a*, b*) of `Rome Beauty' apples (Malus domestics) were measured at weekly intervals during maturation periods in 1988 and 1989. Chromaticity was measured using a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200b calorimeter on four quadrants of the fruit at locations midway between the stem and calyx ends. The apples continued to develop red color through the maturation period. After storage, the peel areas where chromaticity was measured were evaluated for scald intensity. The L* value at harvest was correlated positively with scald intensity, while the a* value was correlated negatively. An equation has been developed to describe the relationship between chromaticity values at harvest and scald intensity after storage.
Susan Lurie, Joshua D. Klein, and Ruth Ben Arie
A prestorage heat treatment of 38C for 4 days applied to `Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) before regular air storage at 0C inhibited the development of superficial scald. Heat-treated apples stored for 3 months had superficial scald levels similar to diphenylamine (DPA)-dipped apples, while all nontreated control apples had scald. After 5 or 6 months of storage, this inhibition of scald development by prestorage heat treatment declined. The prestorage heat treatment inhibited the accumulation of α-farnesene and conjugated trienes in apple cuticle during storage, while DPA inhibited only α-farnesene oxidation. This treatment may be a substitute for chemical treatments against scald not only for short-term storage of `Granny Smith' but possibly also for other scald-susceptible apple cultivars.
‘Anjou’ is the most widely produced european pear cultivar in the Pacific northwestern United States with annual sales of ≈222 million kilograms ( Northwest Horticultural Council, 2013 ). Superficial scald, resulting from necrosis of the hypodermal
Rao V. Mulpuri and Chris B. Watkins
Apple fruits are highly susceptible to superficial scald, which is currently controlled by both chemical- and non-chemical-based technologies. The possible threat of withdrawal of diphenylamine (DPA) for the control of superficial scald has prompted us to investigate the biochemical and molecular aspects of scald resistance. We have selected genetic populations of a cross between `White Angel' and `Rome Beauty' that are resistant and susceptible to scald, and investigated whether the resistance of scald in these populations is due to the higher antioxidant-based defense systems. Cortical tissue of fruits (0–3 cm) was peeled and analyzed for conjugated trienes, H2O2, carbonyl groups, and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POX). Scald-resistant fruits at harvest had higher antioxidant enzymes and low levels of conjugated trienes, carbonyl compounds, and H2O2 levels compared to fruits that are susceptible to scald. Further, H2O2 levels rose in scald-susceptible fruits stored under low temperature with a concomitant increase in the production of conjugated trienes and carbonyl compounds, while no major changes were observed in scald-resistant fruits. Enhanced levels of H2O2 in scald-susceptible populations could be related to enhanced SOD activities and decreased activities of H2O2 degrading enzymes, suggesting that an imbalance between
C. Chervin, J. Raynal, N. André, A. Bonneau, and P. Westercamp
The effects of ethanol vapors, controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, and a combination of both on superficial scald development on `Granny Smith' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) are reported. The major result was that ethanol vapors, applied in cold storage, prevented scald development over a week at 20 °C in apples that had been CA-stored for 4 months, then left for 1 month in cold air storage. Interrupting CA storage aimed to reproduce industry practices when fruit in part of storage rooms has to be sold and the remaining fruit is held in air for later sale. The estimated cost and further development of this method are discussed.