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Brian Makeredza, Helen Marais, Michael Schmeisser, Elmi Lötze and Willem J. Steyn

hypodermis ( Felicetti and Schrader, 2009 ; Wünsche et al., 2001 ). Sunburn necrosis, however, is not hidden by red color development, as it results in the death of epidermal and sub-epidermal tissue, causing the formation of sunken, brown to black necrotic

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Brian Makeredza, Michael Schmeisser, Elmi Lötze and Willem J. Steyn

treatments ( Tables 1 and 3 ). There was a significant linear relationship between sunburn browning and sunburn necrosis with irrigation level for tagged fruit and total fruit at harvest ( Tables 1 and 3 ). The percentage sunburn necrosis increased with

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Larry E. Schrader

higher surface temperatures and more serious sunburn injury than attached fruit, but they continued to use detached fruit in subsequent studies ( Rabinowitch et al., 1986 ). Although sunburn necrosis can be induced on detached fruit, attempts to induce

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Larry E. Schrader, Jianguang Zhang, Jianshe Sun, Jizhong Xu, Don C. Elfving and Cindy Kahn

correlated (r = −0.24** and −0.66**, respectively) with maximum FST. Three distinct types of apple sunburn have been identified and characterized: photo-oxidative sunburn, sunburn necrosis, and sunburn browning. Photo-oxidative sunburn results from the

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David A. Felicetti and Larry E. Schrader

University. Sunburn necrosis and sunburn browning were described by Schrader et al. (2001 , 2003a , b ), and photoxidative sunburn was first described by Felicetti (2003) . Sunburn necrosis occurred when fruit surface temperatures (FSTs) reached 52 ± 1 °C

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measured, only the occurrence of sunburn necrosis and browning. The following statements in the Discussion are unsubstantiated or presented in a manner that may mislead the reader: “Since 2003, RAYNOX has become the leading sunburn protectant for apples in

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Meng-Shiun Tsai, Tan-Cha Lee and Pai-Tsang Chang

( Schroeder and Kay, 1961 )], and citrus ( Futch and Jackson, 1993 ; Jifon and Syvertsen, 2003a ; Myhob et al., 1996 ). Schrader et al. (2001) described two types of sunburn that occurred in apple (e.g., sunburn necrosis and sunburn browning), and a third

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Jacques R. Fouché, Stephanie C. Roberts, Stephanie J.E. Midgley and Willem J. Steyn

. Sunburn necrosis occurs as a result of thermal death of epidermal and subepidermal cells that leads to formation of a necrotic spot and is caused by extreme fruit surface temperature (52 ± 1 °C), whereas sunburn browning is a result of high fruit surface