Three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] cultivars with different ozone (O3) sensitivities were grown in a charcoal-filtered greenhouse and exposed in continuous-stirred tank reactor chambers to five levels (0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 nL·L-1) of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the presence (80 nL·L-1) or absence (0 nL·L-1) of ozone (O3) for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 22 days. In the presence of O3, SO2 increased foliar injury in all three cultivars, but the impact was greatest for the most O3-sensitive cultivar, `Sugar Baby,' moderate for `Crimson Sweet,' and least for the least O3-sensitive cultivar, `Charleston Gray.' For all cultivars, SO2 intensified O3 suppression of leaf area for the first seven mainstem leaves and of dry weights for aboveground and total plant tissues. Root dry weight was independently suppressed by both pollutants, and the root: top ratio was linearly suppressed by SO2 alone. Sulfur dioxide combined with O3 can be detrimental to crop species such as watermelon. Thus, the potential for SO2 phytotoxicity should not be summarily dismissed, especially in the vicinity of SO2 point sources where O3 co-occurs.
Gwendolyn Eason, Richard A. Reinert and James E. Simon
Clusters of four varieties of table grapes were packed in TKV lugs and fumigated with 4, 6, or 8 Deccodione Smoke Tables (DST) for a period of 30 minutes in a fumigation chamber. After fumigation, inoculum of Botrytis cineraria was placed among the berries in the clusters in predetermined locations. Fruit was stored at 0C and high relative humidity for up to 16 weeks. Fruit was examined at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of storage. Decay control index, freshness of stems, and bleaching of pigments around the capstem was recorded at each evaluation time. Size of aerosol particles was determined. Satisfactory control of decay was obtained with 8 DSTs. Lower doses failed to give satisfactory decay control. Bleaching of capstems typically seen with sulfur dioxide fumigation was not noticed with DST fumigation.
Ammon Lichter, Yohanan Zutahy, Tatiána Kaplunov and Susan Lurie
Botrytis cinerea and rachis browning as a result of desiccation are the two main factors that reduce table grape postharvest quality ( Nelson, 1985 ). The means for preventing decay during storage is the use of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), which was first tried
Manish K. Bansal, George E. Boyhan and Daniel D. MacLean
market availability of Vidalia onions from May to September ( Boyhan et al., 2008 ). Sumner (2000) reported good quality Vidalia onions after 7 months of storage under controlled-atmosphere storage. Sulfur dioxide is not used in onion storage in Georgia
D.M. Olszyk, G. Kats, C.L. Morrison, P.J. Dawson, I. Gocka, J. Wolf and C.R. Thompson
Three-year-old `Valencia' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] trees were exposed to air pollutants for 4. years in open-top field chambers to determine the chronic effects of ambient oxidants (primarily ozone) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) on fruit yield and quality and tree growth. Ozone concentrations averaged 0.012,0.040, and 0.075 ppm for 0800 to 2000 hr during April to October for filtered, half-ambient, and full ambient oxidant chambers. Sulfur dioxide was applied continuously at 0.09 ppm. Oxidant and SO2 effects were only marginally significant, as there was considerable variability in response among individual trees and between years. Across two “on” production years, yields were 31% lower with ambient oxidants, 11% lower with half-ambient oxidants, and 29% lower with sulfur dioxide compared to filtered air. Number of fruit per tree was reduced by ambient oxidants and SO2. Individual fruit weights were reduced by ambient oxidants, but no other fruit quality characteristics showed definite responses to ambient oxidants or SO2. Ambient oxidants had no effect on yield or quality of fruit during one “off' production year. Neither ambient oxidants nor SO, affected tree growth.
Carlos H. Crisosto, Lluís Palou, David Garner and Donald A. Armson
Reduced doses of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for the fumigation of marine containers with respect to the concentration × time (CT) product and gas penetration. Two commercial export containers were loaded at 32 °F (0 °C) with 20 metric pallets [40 × 48 inches (102.5 × 123.1 cm)] comprised of 72 expanded polystyrene foam boxes (12 tiers, 6 boxes/tier) of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) and fumigated with 1.0 and 0.5 lb (0.454 and 0.227 kg) SO2, respectively. A third marine container was loaded with 20 metric pallets comprised of 84 plastic boxes of table grapes (14 tiers, 6 boxes/tier) and fumigated with 0.25 lb (0.113 kg) SO2. The boxes contained 16 lb (7.3 kg) of table grapes distributed in nine polyethylene cluster bagsenclosed in a perforated polyethylene box liner. Fumigations were performed through the bottom seal of the rear door from pre-weighed compressed SO2 cylinders. CT product was calculated after taking samples of the atmosphere in the container every 5 to 10 min and measuring the ambient SO2 concentration with a gas sampling pump and colorimetric dosimeter tubes. Pallet and box penetration of the gas was assessed by placing passive colorimetric SO2 dosimeters inside the cluster bags in boxes located in both the third and ninth center boxes from the top of pallets located in the front, center, and rear of the load. Fumigations with 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 lb SO2, with calculated CT products at 32 °F of 925, 360, and 40 ppm-h (μL·L-1·h-1) respectively, were found to provide excessive, adequate, and insufficient SO2 doses.
Liping Kou, Yaguang Luo, Wu Ding, Xinghua Liu and William Conway
immediately after harvest with sulfur dioxide gas followed by additional sulfur dioxide application during storage using either direct gas treatment or fumigation through continuous-release sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) -generating pads. However, the concentration of
Bruce R. Roberts, Virginia M. Schnipke and Jack H. Barger
Two-year-old seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) were fumigated with SO2 (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 ppm) 8 hours daily for two 3-day periods spaced 3 days apart. Response to acute SO2 stress was determined by measuring changes in ethylene biosynthesis and membrane permeability. Ethylene evolution was a useful indicator of the onset of SO2 stress in red maple, but was not a particularly good indicator of the degree of stress. Membrane permeability was not as sensitive to the initial stages of SO2 stress, and significant changes in permeability were noted only at higher concentrations of this pollutant (> 2.0 ppm).
Jane M. Petitte and Douglas P. Ormrod
The effects of SO2 and NO2, singly and in combination, on the growth and physiology of nontuberizing Solarium tuberosum L. `Russet Burbank' plants were studied in controlled conditions. Plants were exposed to 0.11 μl SO2 and/or 0.11 μl NO2/liter for 24 hours a day up to 10 days. Statistically significant effects were observed mainly in the SO2+ NO2 treatments compared with the control plants. Leaf area was reduced from day 2 onward, and root fresh and dry weights were reduced from day 4 onward. Significant reductions in leaf and stem dry weights occurred on day 6. Net CO2 exchange rates were reduced for SO2 exposed compared with control plants beginning on day 3, while water loss rates were increased with SO2 + NO2 beginning on day 3. The increases in water loss rate were possibly due to the development of cuticular injury observed as abaxial glazing on the upper and middle canopy leaves. Leaf osmotic potential (π) of plants with SO2 + NO2 became more negative within the first 24 hours of the exposure. This reduction was accompanied by an increase in reducing sugar concentration. Xylem water potential was reduced in the mature and expanding leaflets by day 2 of the SO2 + NO2 exposure. The most sensitive aspect of the action of SO2 + NO2 appeared to be the increase in reducing sugars that affected osmotic potential in the leaves. Considering the retardation of root growth, these data suggest that the pollutant gases may have interfered with partitioning of dry matter from the leaves to the roots.
Richard G. Snyder, James E. Simon, Richard A. Reinert, Michael Simini and Gerald E. Wilcox
Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai cv. Sugar Baby, were grown in the field as a fall crop in open-top chambers (OTC) in southwestern Indiana with either charcoal-filtered (CF) or nonfiltered (NF) air. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were continuously monitored in OTC and ambient air. There was a significant decrease in marketable yield by weight (19.9%, P = 0.05), percentage of marketable fruit by number (20.8%, P = 0.10), and total yield by weight (21.5%, P = 0.05) from plants grown in the NF air treatment compared with those grown in CF air. Ozone-induced foliar injury was significantly greater on plants grown under NF conditions. Ambient concentrations of 03 in southwestern Indiana caused foliar injury (P = 0.10) and significant yield loss to a fall crop of watermelons.