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Robert G. Anderson

Greenhouse grown cut stems of satin flower were used in a series of postharvest experiments to determine the effect of sucrose on flower life, flower quality and the overall vaselife. Experiments in 1993 compared 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% sucrose in tap water with and without a biocide (4 ppm sodium hypochlorite). Cut stems of `Grace Rose Pink,' `Grace Salmon and `Grace Red' were harvested, stored in a refrigerator overnight at l-2” C.; all cut stems were maintained in randomized individual vases in a room kept at 22-23 C with fluorescent lighting (50 ft.c.) from 0800-2000 HR. Postharvest performance was best in tap water, tap water + biocide, and 0.5% sucrose + biocide with excellent flower opening and flower quality for 10-14 days. Leaf yellowing and leaf necrosis increased greatly with the increasing concentrations of sucrose. Flowers of `Grace Salmon' showed significant petal necrosis in the treatments with higher concentrations of sucrose.

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Theresa Bosma and John M. Dole

Various postharvest treatments were evaluated for effect on longevity and quality of cut Campanula medium L. `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' stems. Stems stored at 2 °C either wet or dry had no difference in vase life or percent flowers opened; however, flowers stored dry had a slightly greater percentage of senesced flowers at termination. Increasing storage duration from 1 to 3 weeks decreased vase life. Stems pretreated for 4 hours with 38 °C floral solution (deionized water amended to pH 3.5 with citric acid and 200 mg·L-1 8-HQC) or a 1-MCP pulse followed by a 5% sucrose pulse solution produced the longest vase life (10.3 or 10.4 days, respectively). Flowers opening after treatments commenced were paler than those flowers already opened and a 24-hour pretreatment with 5% or 10% sucrose did not prevent this color reduction. Stems had an average vase life of only 3.3 days when placed in floral vase foam but lasted 10.0 days without foam. Optimum sucrose concentration was 1.0% to 2.0% for stems placed in 22 °C floral vase solution without foam and 4% for stems placed in foam. High (110 μmol·m-2·s-1) or low (10 μmol·m-2·s-1) light levels did not affect postharvest parameters, but the most recently opened flowers were paler under low light conditions than under high light conditions. Chemical names used: 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC); 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).

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Sahar Dabirian and Carol A. Miles

increasing carbohydrate concentrations in grafted tissues may increase grafting success. The objective of this study was to test whether increasing carbohydrate levels through application of a sucrose solution to rootstock seedlings before grafting can

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Ya-Ching Chuang and Yao-Chien Alex Chang

of 8-HQS, but the vase life of flowers in sucrose solutions averaged 19 d regardless of whether 8-HQS was added. Thus, for Expt. 2, we chose 200 mg·L −1 8-HQS and 20 g·L −1 sucrose plus 200 mg·L −1 8-HQS as the respective no-sugar and with

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Christine Schumann, Henrik Jürgen Schlegel, Eckhard Grimm, Moritz Knoche, and Alexander Lang

changes in the curvatures of strips of fruit skin (with a layer of adhering flesh) and changes in the projected surface areas of excised flesh discs when incubated in sucrose solutions of a range of osmotic potentials. The study focused on Stage III of

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Pinki Devi, Scott Lukas, and Carol A. Miles

applications of sucrose solution to rootstock seedlings before watermelon grafting can increase grafting success when both cotyledons are removed from the rootstock by splice grafting. Survival (%) of splice-grafted watermelon seedlings 21 DAG was the greatest

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Jane Whittaker, Terril A. Nell, James E. Barrett, and Thomas J. Sheehan

The effect of postharvest dips on the longevity of Anthurium andraenum cultivar Nitta and Alpinia purpurata was evaluated. The inflorescences were dipped in a 200 ppm benzyladenine (BA) solution, an antitranspirant, or water for 10 minutes. After dipping, anthuriums were placed directly in water and gingers were placed in either water or a 2% sucrose solution and placed in interior conditions (10 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hr/day, 21±2C). Ginger longevity was increased by 10 days or more by the sucrose solution. The greatest longevity of gingers was obtained when dipped in either BA or the antitranspirant and held in the sucrose solution. Anthurium longevity increased 10 days when dipped in BA, while the other treatments had little effect.

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Toru Hayashi and Setsuko Todoriki

Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose, or maltose delayed bloom wilting and foliage yellowing of cut chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] caused by gamma irradiation at 750 Gy. Solutions of silver thiosulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, potassium sorbate, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, 6-benzylamino purine, and gibberellin did not reduce irradiation damage. Holding chrysanthemum cut flowers in a sucrose solution before and during irradiation did not influence the vase life, but holding the cut flowers in a sucrose solution following irradiation prolonged the vase life. The results suggest that sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums.

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L.E. Hinesley and Sylvia M. Blankenship

Cut branches of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] were subjected to solutions with different molarity, pH, and solutes. Citrate-phosphate and Na-phosphate buffers induced heavy needle loss at concentrations as low as 10 mm, whereas needle loss was negligible for MES buffer, sucrose solutions, and distilled water. Needle drop increased in response to higher solute concentration and/or greater duration of exposure. Needle loss was almost 100% at pH 3.0 and 9.0, but minimal at pH 6.0 and 7.0. Chemical name used: 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES).

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S.C. Schank, D.A. Diz, and D.S. Wofford

Five nutrient solutions were evaluated in the greenhouse to determine which solutions would allow detached culms of Pennisetum to produce seed. The genotypes tested originated from the hybridization of Pennisetum glaucum L. (Pearl millet) × P. pennisetum Schum. (elephantgrass). The solutions were water, Hoagland's, sucrose, sucrose + hydroxyquinoline sulfate (HQ), and Hoagland's + sucrose + HQ. Neither the water nor the Hoagland's solution supported high seed set. Although the sucrose solution enhanced seed production, the seeds were low in weight and did not germinate well. The best nutrient solutions were 2% sucrose + 0.02% HQ or Hoagland's + 2% sucrose + 0.02% HQ. The four genotypes used differed substantially in seed production, but all produced seed, with germination >25%. This result indicates that the cut-culm technique is a possible way of getting recurrent restricted phenotypic selection seed in Pennisetum hexaploid hybrids.