The fruit of six highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars and eight rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) cultivars and selections were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for levels of the commonly found organic acids, citric, malic, succinic, and quinic. The two cultivar groups possessed distinctive patterns of relative organic acid proportions that could unambiguously separate pure rabbiteye and highbush clones in a principal component analysis. Highbush clones were characterized by high citric acid content, with percentages averaging 75% (range 38% to 90%). Succinic acid was the second most plentiful acid, averaging 17%. In contrast, rabbiteye cultivars and selections contained 10% citric acid, and no clone had >22%. Succinic acid and malic acid were found in greater quantities than in highbush, averaging 50% and 34%, respectively. Analysis of the fruit of seven albino-fruited highbush selections exhibited a profile similar to standard highbush cultivars, but with a citric acid average of <50%, and proportionally greater amounts of succinic and quinic acids. Given the differences in sensory quality of these four acids, it is likely that acid partitioning patterns can largely account for some of the perceived flavor differences between rabbiteye and highbush blueberries. Because several current breeding efforts involve hybridization between highbush and rabbiteye blueberries, a consideration of acid composition of breeding parents maybe worthwhile.
Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, Filmore I. Meredith, and James R. Ballington
Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, Wenjuan Yu, and Bingru Huang
–B ), but little is known of the involvement of these amino acids in drought responses. In plants, GABA is mainly metabolized by two mitochondrial enzymes, GABA transaminase and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) ( Bouché and Fromm, 2004 ). Fait et
Xiaoning Li, Xiaoyan Sun, Guangyang Wang, Erick Amombo, Xiuwen Zhou, Zhaohong Du, Yinkun Zhang, Yan Xie, and Jinmin Fu
higher content in Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + F group than Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 group. By contrast, the organic acids, such as citric acids, fumaric acids, and succinic acids content were 0.78-, 0.82-, and 0.94-fold lower in Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + F regime than Ca 3 (PO 4
J.B. Magee and C.L. Gupton
The organic acid composition of blueberries of three highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars, three rabbiteye (V. ashei cultivars and nine southern highbush (V. corymbosun hybrids) cultivars or selections was determined by HPLC. Species means off the individual acids (citric, malic, succinic, and quinic), expressed as a percentage of total acid, formed profiles or patterns that are thought to be characteristic of the species. Citric (75%) was the predominant acid in highbush fruit with lesser percentages of succinic (13%), quinic (9.6%), and malic (2.7%). The percent composition of rabbiteye berries [quinic (49%), succinic (39%), citric (6.7%), malic (5%)] was distinctly different from highbush. The acid profile of southern highbush fruit reflected their V. corymbosum heritage with an acid profile similar to that of highbush. When related to a clone's pedigree, these results suggest that organic acid profiles may be a useful screening tool for studying the contribution of southeastern native species such as V. darrowi or V. ashei to the inheritance of organic acids.
James B. Magee
The southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium, mostly corymbosum) cultivars Jubilee, Pearl River, and Magnolia and the rabbiteye cultivars Climax and Premier were stored for 4 weeks at 1-2 °C. Berries were held in pint “clam shell” plastic retail units and were evaluated weekly for physical and compositional quality. As groups, the rabbiteyes were higher in SSC, SSC/TA, glucose and fructose, anthocyanins, and malic, quinic, and succinic acids. `Jubilee' was the southern highbush and `Climax' the rabbiteye least affected by the storage. `Pearl River' and `Magnolia' were less firm and more shriveled than the other cultivars. `Magnolia' had the highest incidence of decay; decay was slight overall.
Amy J. Moberg, James J. Luby, Carl J. Rosen, and Peter D. Ascher
Accessions of Vaccinium species (deliciosum, ovalifolium, membranaceum, parvifolium, scoparium) were evaluated for tolerance to higher pH in the root zone using an in vitro screening procedure. Seeds were germinated on media containing all essential nutrients with nitrogen in the nitrate form at pH 5 and pH 6 and evaluated for 21 weeks. Excess EDTA was used to buffer the micronutrients and pH was buffered by MES and succinic acid. Germination varied among species with V. ovalifolium being highest and V. parvifolium not germinating at all. Mortality was lower at pH 5. At pH 6, V. ovalifolium and V. membranaceum exhibited variation for growth while all other species suffered complete mortality.
Duane W. Greene and James R. Schupp
AVG was evaluated for its effect on controlling preharvest drop and influencing ripening of `McIntosh' apples in Maine and Massachusetts. AVG consistently and effectively retarded preharvest drop. AVG was superior to NAA and comparable to daminozide in drop control. Dilute or 2× applications were more effective than applications made at lower water volumes. One application of AVG made 4 weeks before anticipated normal harvest was more effective in controlling preharvest drop than split applications of the same amount made earlier or later. In general, AVG delayed ripening as assessed by a retardation in the development of red color, maintenance of flesh firmness, delayed degradation of starch, and a delayed onset of the ethylene climacteric. We conclude that AVG is an effective drop control compound that is also useful as a management tool to extend the harvest window for blocks of `McIntosh' that would otherwise ripen simultaneously. Chemical names used: aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide, Alar).
Guglielmo Costa, Rita Biasi, Giannina Vizzotto, and George C. Martin
One- and three-node nectarine explants were compared with intact potted units of similar dimension. The explants and intact plants performed similarly as judged by rate of leaf photosynthesis, leaf and fruit respiration, and changes in fresh and dry weights. Water loss and transpiration were less in explants than intact plants after 24 h. Explants with fruit of nectarine, olive, and prune were used to evaluate uptake and distribution of 14C-labeled paclobutrazol (PBZ), daminozide, and sucrose in plant parts. These comparisons reveal that the explant system is useful for primary testing of hypotheses, screening of chemicals, and evaluating species response for later testing of selected parameters in the field. Three-node explants containing fruit are reliable for experiments lasting up to 4 days. Chemical names used: succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide [daminozide (SADH)]; β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol [paclobutrazol (PBZ)].
J.C. Beaulieu, J.M. Lea, G. Eggleston, and Z. Peralta-Inga
Markedly higher average sucrose (58.1%) was recovered from mesocarp tissue of six orange-flesh cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes over three seasons compared to glucose (17.5%) and fructose (25.6%). A significant decrease in sucrose concentration was observed in the fall for all six genotypes, and the glucose (21.2%) and fructose (33.5%) ratios were also higher in the fall; markedly different than the spring fruit averages. The female inbreds had significantly (P = 0.05) lower glucose, fructose, sucrose, and total sugars than the commercial hybrids. Compared to the male and female inbreds, commercial hybrids had significantly (P = 0.05) higher concentrations of fructose, sucrose and total sugars, but not glucose. Two refractometric digital measures of °Brix (°Brix-At and °Brix-II) in homogenized slurries were positively correlated (r = 0.914; P ≤ 0.001), and were also correlated with total sugars (r ≥ 0.839) and sucrose (r ≥ 0.752). °Brix of cubes (°Brix-cube) was significantly correlated with sucrose and total sugars (r ≥ 0.627). Total sugar was positively correlated with sucrose (r = 0.843; P ≤ 0.001). Eastern-type U.S. melons had significantly (P = 0.05) higher °Brix-cube and °Brix-At compared to U.S. western shipper-types. Female inbreds were significantly (P = 0.05) lower in mean °Brix (all three measures) compared to the hybrids and male inbreds, and female inbreds had higher pH than the male inbreds. Western shippers had significantly (P = 0.05) higher pH compared to eastern genotypes. The predominant organic acid in all six genotypes was succinic acid, generally followed by oxalic, citric/isocitric, then malic acid. Succinic acid recovery was significantly higher in all six genotypes harvested in the fall, compared to spring. Eastern genotypes had significantly (P = 0.05) lower organic acids compared to western genotypes. Results indicate that maternal inheritance appears to confer lower sugar accumulating capacity and higher pH, which, is associated with vacuolar acid invertase (AI) and hexose balance. Breeding programs should focus on hybrid vigor derived through accentuating homozygous female inbreds with lower pH and higher capacity for sucrose accumulation, as well as morphological and agronomic traits often carried in the female line.
Martin P.N. Gent, Zakia D. Parrish, and Jason C. White
Exudation of organic acids by roots has been implicated in uptake of minerals from soil. Three cultivars within each of two subspecies of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera D. S. Decker var. ovifera and C. pepo ssp. pepo var. pepo) were grown in the field. Plants of ssp. pepo had higher concentrations of K, P, and Zn than those of ssp. ovifera. These same cultivars were grown under P sufficient and depleted conditions in hydroponics, to measure exudation of organic acids from roots. When grown in hydroponics, tissues of ssp. ovifera had similar or higher concentrations of nutrients than ssp. pepo. Therefore, differences in tissue composition of field-grown plants are likely due to differences in nutrient uptake ability, not inherent differences in tissue composition between subspecies. Phosphorus nutrition played a significant role in exudation of organic acids into the hydroponics solution. For both subspecies, P depletion resulted in exudation of more citric and succinic acid, and less oxalic and tartaric acid. Under P depletion, ssp. pepo exuded more citric acid than ssp. ovifera. When soil was eluted with solution containing root exudates, the exudates from ssp. pepo eluted more K, Mg, Fe, and Zn than did those from ssp. ovifera. Among subspecies of C. pepo, exudation of organic acids, particularly exudation of citric acid in response to P depletion, is associated with the plant's ability to accumulate more inorganic nutrients when grown in the field.