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James E. Altland, Charles Krause, James C. Locke, and Wendy L. Zellner

Soilless substrates used in U.S. floriculture are comprised primarily of sphagnum peatmoss amended with perlite, vermiculite, pumice, and to a lesser extent sand, compost, and other components. Sphagnum peatmoss does not contain sufficient

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Paraskevi A. Londra, Maria Psychoyou, and John D. Valiantzas

Recently, urea–formaldehyde resin foam (UFRF) has been introduced as a synthetic organic soil amendment and is used as a substrate in the propagation and growth of plants in hydroponic systems, soilless cultures, and substrates used in production of

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Federica Larcher and Valentina Scariot

environmentally friendly substrates with good quality, low cost, and obtainable in great quantity is attracting more attention. Recently, several formulations of alternative materials for potting ornamental plants are being developed, in particular for herbaceous

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Michael R. Evans, Brian E. Jackson, Michael Popp, and Sammy Sadaka

addition, the utilization of biochar improved the quality of the soil because of its sorption qualities that helped to retain nutrients and nitrogen ( Ippolito et al., 2012 ). The components of horticultural substrates used in commercial greenhouse and

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James E. Altland, James C. Locke, Wendy L. Zellner, and Jennifer K. Boldt

The primary component in greenhouse potting substrates is sphagnum peatmoss. Substrate solution pH of nonamended peatmoss ranges from 4.0 to 4.5 ( Landis, 1990 ). Optimum substrate pH has been determined for economically important crops such as

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Erin J. Yafuso, Paul R. Fisher, Ana C. Bohórquez, and James E. Altland

potentially delay rooting and increase disease risk ( Chérif et al., 1997 ; Heiskanen, 1995 ; Leakey, 2004 ). An appropriate combination of substrate selection and irrigation practices is therefore needed to balance adequate supply of water for propagule

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James E. Altland, M. Gabriela Buamscha, and Donald A. Horneck

of most nursery substrates (60% to 80% of the substrate mix; personal observation). Buamscha et al. (2007) documented that DFB alone provides sufficient micronutrients for annual vinca [ Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don ‘ Peppermint Cooler’] grown

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Matthew D. Taylor, Paul V. Nelson, and Jonathan M. Frantz

During the 1980s, many geranium producers observed a sporadic, unexplained decline in substrate pH. During the same time period, they also reported the occurrence of toxic concentrations of Fe or Mn in leaf tissue ( Bachman and Miller, 1995 ). In

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Alex B. Daniels, David M. Barnard, Phillip L. Chapman, and William L. Bauerle

Substrate moisture is an important component of crop water status because it controls the partitioning of water and energy fluxes. In container-grown production systems, the volume of water that can be held in the rhizosphere is restricted, and

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Whitney N. Griffin, Steven M. Cohan, John D. Lea-Cox, and Andrew G. Ristvey

growth, allow air movement for root gas exchange, offer stability and structure for root anchoring, and provide nutrients for plant uptake. Although substrates retain a proportion of any rainfall (buffering immediate storm water runoff), plants provide