Suberin accumulation in mechanically wounded bark tissue was determined fluorimetrically in greenhouse-grown peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and F2 progeny from peach × almond [P. amygdalus (Mill.) DA. Webb] hybrids. In general, suberin accumulation following wounding was significantly greater for progeny from almond-type than for peach-type hybrids. Hybrids from parents with almond tree type combined with peach fruit type accumulated the highest suberin levels. These data may partially explain the differences observed among peach and peach × almond hybrids in relative susceptibility to Leucostoma canker [Leucostoma persoonii Hohn. and L. cincta (Fr.) Hohn.] and injury caused by lesser peachtree borer. The association of higher suberin accumulation with specific phenotypic characteristics could simplify the selection of desirable seedlings in a breeding program that includes canker resistance as an objective.
A.R. Biggs and R. Scorza
Xiang Wang, Ramón A. Arancibia, Jeffrey L. Main, Mark W. Shankle, and Don R. LaBonte
, ethylene has been reported to have a role in wound healing ( St. Amand and Randle, 1989 ). Lignin and suberin contribute to both cell wall strength and resistance to water loss during plant growth and development ( Bernards and Lewis, 1998 ; Boudet, 2000
Whole-shoot water potential, osmotic potential of the xylem fluid, and bark water potential were examined from late winter through early spring for six peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars varying in relative susceptibility to Leucostoma canker. There were significant differences among cultivars for whole-shoot water potential on all 11 dates tested in 1986, but not in 1985. The date effect was not consistent among cultivars, although when averaged across dates, the whole-shoot water potential of `Loring' was significantly more negative than that of `Candor' or `Garnet Beauty'. There were significant differences among cultivars for xylem fluid osmotic potential on one of five dates tested in 1985 and three of 11 dates tested in 1986, although cultivar differences were not consistent between years. Cultivars exhibited differences in bark water potential on three of five dates tested in 1985, with `Loring' exhibiting the least negative values when averaged across dates. There were only occasional significant correlations of the water status characteristics with relative susceptibility to Leucostoma canker or suberin accumulation. Measurements of plant water status among cultivars or genotypes in peach do not appear to be reliable indicators of susceptibility to Leucostoma spp. or wound response.
Thanidchaya Puthmee, Kenji Takahashi, Midori Sugawara, Rieko Kawamata, Yoshie Motomura, Takashi Nishizawa, Toshiyuki Aikawa, and Wilawan Kumpoun
suberin polymer ( Keren-Keiserman et al., 2004b ). Ethylene is thought to be involved in the development of lignified cell walls containing suberin polymers ( Gerchikov et al., 2008 ) through the activation of POD activity ( Argandoña et al., 2001 ). The
D.S. Achor, H. Browning, and L.G. Albrigo
Young expanding leaves of `Ambersweet' [Citrus reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata) × C. sinensis (L) Osb.] with feeding injury by third larval stage of citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella) were examined by light and electron microscopy for extent of injury and tissue recovery over time. Results confirmed that injury is confined to the epidermal layer, leaving a thin covering over the mine tunnel that consisted of the cuticle and outer cell wall. Wound recovery consisted of two possible responses: the production of callus tissue or the formation of wound periderm. The production of callus tissue developed within 3 days of injury when the uninjured palisade or spongy parenchyma below the injured epidermis produced callus tissue through periclinal or diagonal cell divisions. After 1 month, the entire epidermis was replaced by callus tissue. In the absence of secondary microbial invasion, this callus tissue developed a thick cuticle, followed by development of a covering of platelet wax after 4 months. Alternatively, wound periderm formed if the outer cuticular covering was torn before the cuticle had developed sufficiently to prevent the exposed cells from being desiccated or invaded by fungi, bacteria, or other insects. The wound periderm consisted of a lignified layer of collapsed callus cells, a suberized phellem layer, and a multilayered phelloderm-phellogen. Since there were always cellular collapse or fungi and bacteria associated with wound periderm formation, it was determined to be a secondary effect, not a direct effect of leafminer feeding.
Jollanda Effendy, Don R. La Bonte, and Niranjan Baisakh
H2 (TH2)— IbSIn04, basic Helix-loop-helix (bHLH)— IbSIn30a , and IbRPK . The late response genes included those involved in the lignin and suberin biosynthesis pathway [caffeic acid 3- O -methyl transferase (CCOMT), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL
Sawyer N. Adams, Walter O. Ac-Pangan, and Lorenzo Rossi
environmental stress conditions, can develop specific cell wall modifications called “suberin lamellae.” These lamellae originate from the deposition of hydrophobic polymers (i.e., suberin) on the cell walls ( Enstone et al., 2002 ). These are also often
William M. Walter Jr., Betsy Randall-Schadel, and William E. Schadel
Wound healing in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Calypso) was studied using histological and degradative techniques. A thick exudate appeared at the wounded surface shortly after wounding. This material retarded water loss and possibly aided in the formation of sclerified parenchyma observed 24 hours after wounding. The sclerified material was positive to a modified Weisner stain, indicating lignification was occurring. Wound periderm (cork) was initiated directly beneath the sclerified parenchyma cells within 48 hours after wounding. The cork layers were positive to Sudan IV stain, indicating suberin was being formed. The rate of phellem development decreased by 6 days after wounding. By day 7, younger phellem cells and sclerified parenchyma cells were stained by Sudan IV. Degradation of the wound tissue by chemical procedures demonstrated that relatively large amounts of lignin and suberin were deposited during healing. Fragments from the lignin degradation Indicated that lignin was composed mainly of gualacyl and p-hydroxyphenyl residues. Suberin was found to contain mainly 1,16-hexadecane and 1,18-osctadecene decarboxylic acids detected as the silylated diol derivatives.
Chris A. Dunning, Linda Chalker-Scott, and James D. Scott
The change in the cold hardiness of Rhododendron (cv. `English Roseum' following chronic exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation (280-320 nm) was studied. Leaf disks removed from ultraviolet-B exposed plants exhibited a greater tolerance to freezing temperatures than plants which received no ultraviolet-B exposure. Visual browning and percent phenolic leakage indicated that UVB-exposed leaf disks were killed at -11 °C, while control disks were killed at -8°C. The increase in phenolics seen in UV-B exposed plants most likely contributed to their increased resistance to cold temperature through the synthesis of cell-wall associated components such as lignin and suberin.
P.C. Wang, C.Y. Wang, H.F. Song, and Z.J. Yan
Potatoes with hollow heart or brown center are considered to be of poor quality for both fresh and processing markets. A reliable nondestructive method, which can distinguish affected and normal potatoes, is described here. A Varian 4.7 Tesla, 33-cm horizontal-bore spectroscopy/imaging system was used to obtain nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images of potatoes. A two-dimensional multi-slice spin-echo imaging technique was used to acquire the cross-sectional images along the longitudinal direction. The echo time was 35 msec and the repetition time was 1.2 sec. A total of 13 slice images were taken for each potato. A one-dimensional projection technique was also performed to evaluate the possibility of using fast-scan method. The brown center showed high intensity in long echo scans due to its longer TL relaxation time. A suberin-like layer resembling the periderm developed on the cavity wall of hollow heart causing a tan or dark brown coloration. This cavity wall also appeared in high intensity on the image. The affected potatoes can easily be sorted out using this nondestructive NMR imaging technique.