A synthetic octoploid was derived from 2 diploid and 1 tetraploid species of Fragaria L. The clone is recommended for use in strawberry breeding as it contains germplasm not previously available at the octoploid level.
A synthetic octoploid has been developed from a tetraploid hybrid of Fragaria moschata Duch. (2n = 42) and F. nubicola Duch. (2n = 14). The clone is recommended for use in strawberry breeding as it contains germ plasm not previously available at the octoploid level.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture strawberry breeding program has introduced 61 cultivars from 6 breeding locations in its 61-year history. Fifteen to 20 of these cultivars have been widely grown, and 5 of the recent releases show exceptional promise. From its inception, the program has been aimed at producing high-quality, multipurpose cultivars with disease resistance and broad regional adaptation. Because of disease pressures, genetic resistance has been emphasized, especially for red stele root rot. The USDA has become the principal source of red stele-resistant germplasm for breeding pruposes, and has constantly refined and improved its disease-screening techniques. Red stele and Verticillium resistance have now been incorporated into everbearing strawberries adapted to the eastern United States. Investigations concerning virus detection and eradication and the propagation of virus-free stocks have led to state virus-free plant certification programs, which assure the public of production of the cleanest possible strawberry nursery stocks. The work of the USDA and cooperating state stations has played a significant role in the improvement of strawberry cultivars and the development of modern strawberry production in the United States.
Progeny testing, both formal and informal, has been a component of the University of Florida strawberry breeding program. Informally, the potential of numerous parental combinations has been assessed by growing small populations of each combination, and then ranking these populations according to visual impression. Formal progeny testing, where variables are measured on seedlings in a replicated measurement block, was used during the 1987-88 season. Several families were identified as promising, based on an analysis of yield, fruit size, firmness, and appearance data.
The major objective of the NJUS Strawberry Breeding Program is the development of early ripening cultivars with excellent fruit flavor and size for production under conventional matted-row, and high density annual production systems. In the 1993 replicated Step 3 trials (1991; 1992 planted), sixteen selections had higher yield than `Earliglow' (8127, 11312 kg/Ha), ranging from 8433 kg/Ha to 13334 kg/Ha. Thirty-one had higher weighted average fruit weight (WAFW) over the season than `Earliglow' (8.8 g; 8.4 g), ranging from 9.0 g to 12.3 g.
Selection for phenotype best suited for annual stem includes: low runnering, strong vigor, earliness, and large fruit size. In 1993 harvested Step III, four selections had comparable or higher yield (range: 12,866 to 27,128 kg/Ha) than `Chandler' (12,950 kg/Ha), as well as larger primary and WAFW (range: 13.5 to 16.4 g). All selections were significantly earlier than `Chandler'. In summary, the NJUS Strawberry Breeding Program has selections for the matted-row and annual production systems which are early, with excellent fruit flavor, size, and firmness for fresh market production.
One hundred-eighty six strawberry genotypes from the Univ. of California strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) breeding program were evaluated for resistance to Phytophthora cactorum Schroet. in trials conducted over 6 years; 60 of these genotypes were tested in 2 years or more. Mother plants of each genotype were grown in a propagation nursery beginning in June, and runner plants were set into soil infested with inoculum from a mix of four P. cactorum isolates in August or September of the same year. Runner plants of each genotype were harvested from the inoculated nursery, transferred to a fruiting field location, and evaluated for disease symptoms during the winter and spring following inoculation using a disease severity score. Significant variation for the disease severity score was detected due to years, genotypes, and their interaction. Differences among genotypes were responsible for 60.6% of the phenotypic variance, whereas years and year × genotype interactions contributed relatively little to this variance, 8.2% and 9.3%, respectively. A separate analysis conducted using a balanced subset of six cultivars that were present in all trial years detected variance components due to years and year × genotype interaction slightly smaller than those estimated for the complete trial, 5.0% and 3.9%, respectively. These results highlight the utility of the screening system and suggest that stable resistance to P. cactorum is obtainable in California strawberry breeding populations and production systems.
perennial plant breeding into a decision support tool to provide an overview of a day-neutral strawberry breeding program. Breeding programs differ in procedures, costs, or both, which results in every program having unique cost structures. This makes the
systems for winter and spring markets. In 1968 the University of Florida (UF) started a strawberry breeding program ( Whitaker et al., 2011 ), although some open-pollinated seedling selection was performed before that time. Since that time, the breeding