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James R. Ballington, Barclay Poling and Kerry Olive

reports in the literature on strawberry production systems that would potentially allow growers in the midsouth to achieve extended cropping with DN strawberries in the summer ( Straw, 2005 ) and with double-cropping in the off-season (late fall

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Heidi C. Anderson, Mary A. Rogers and Emily E. Hoover

regional and site suitability for strawberry production ( Rysin et al., 2015 ). Depending on the cultivar, strawberry can be sensitive to variables such as late spring frosts, low winter minimum temperatures, and short growing seasons. There are two types

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Yan Xu, Rachael E. Goodhue, James A. Chalfant, Thomas Miller and Steven A. Fennimore

production system we examine is that transitioning to alternative crops is challenging. Cropland values are quite high in strawberry production areas on California’s Central Coast compared with cropland values in the Central Valley, and growers who produce

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Laurence Gendron, Guillaume Létourneau, Julien Cormier, Claire Depardieu, Carole Boily, Raymond Levallois and Jean Caron

, 2016 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016 ). The province accounts for more than 50% of strawberry production in Canada ( Statistics Canada, 2016 ). In a context of increasing water scarcity worldwide ( Fereres et al., 2011 ), one of the greatest

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Thomas G. Bottoms, Timothy K. Hartz, Michael D. Cahn and Barry F. Farrara

fertilization practices in California strawberry production, so it is unclear whether significant modification of current practices would be required to meet regulatory goals. Studies in other strawberry production regions have indicated that no more than a

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C.L. Gupton

Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), which grows prolifically during the strawberry production season in the Gulf South, has the potential to serve as a living mulch if its growth is controlled. Sublethal dosages of Embark, a plant growth regulator, and the herbicides Poast and Rely were determined on ryegrass. Growth retardation was rated from 0 = none to 6 = dead. In 1993, all Poast dosages (1/8X – 1X, where X = 8 ml·L–1) were lethal. Embark regulated ryegrass growth, but its study was discontinued because of the unlikelihood that it could be labeled for use on strawberries. Results of the 1994 study suggested that prime oil in the spray may cause an inordinate amount of vegetative browning. In 1995, three levels of oil (1/256X, 1/64X, and 1/32X, where X = 8 ml·L–1) were used with each of four levels of Poast (0, 1/32, 1/64, and 1/128X). Increased levels of oil generally caused increased browning at each level of Poast, but no browning occurred where oil only was applied in the spray. In contrast to results in 1995, oil at 1/32X with no Poast caused considerable browning (score = 3.25) in 1996. The most desirable control (score = 2.75) was accomplished by a spray containing 1/128X Poast and 1/64X oil. The most desirable control by Rely (score = 3.25) was accomplished by 1/64 and 1/32X sprays. Rely is not labeled for strawberries although it is labeled for other fruit crops. Chemical names used: 2-[1-(ethoxylmino)buty1]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propy1]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (Poast); Paraffin Base Petroleum Oil + polyol Fatty acid Esters (Prime oil); N-[2,4dimethyl-5-[[(trifluoromethyl)-sulfony]amino]phenyl] acetamide (Embark); ammonium-Dl-homoalanin-4-yl-(methyl) phosphinate (Rely).

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Gary S. Bañuelos and Bradley D. Hanson

United States depend heavily on synthetic fertilizers ( May and Pritts, 1990 ), identifying additional organic sources of nutrients is imperative for successful organic strawberry production in growing regions like central California. For this study, Se

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Mahdi S. Abdal and Majda K. Suleiman

The climate of Kuwait can be characterized as hot (maximumin excess of 45°C), and dry during the summers (May to October), with high evaporation (16 mm/d). Night-time temperatures also remain relatively high during these summer months. Rainfall over the course of the year is very low, usually being limited to less than 100 mm, which falls primarily during the winter months. Likewise, while the country's sand and dust storms occur primarily during the summer months, there may be occasional flurries at almost any time during the year, causing major additional problems with unprotected production of sensitive food crops, like strawberries. Water is also one of the country's most limiting resources, with all ground-water being highly brackish.

Strawberry production, on a commercial basis is a relatively new development in Kuwait. Pre-war production (under protected and unprotected environments) had increased to over 125 tons, on approximately 5 ha of land, providing about 75% of the then existing demand. Strawberry growers set their plants in November and harvest fruit in May. If production could be maintained on a year round basis, at high quality levels, demand would presumably also be significantly higher. While yields had increased to about 25 tons per hectare, production problems include pests (including aphids), cultural practices and adapted cultivars. Current and planned work will be discussed.

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T.K. Hartz, J.E. DeVay and C.L. Elmore

Soil solarization, alone and combined with metam sodium (MS), was evaluated as an alternative to methyl bromide and chloropicrin (MBC) fumigation, the standard soil disinfestation technique in the California strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) industry. Tests were conducted in two consecutive annual production cycles in Irvine, Calif., an environment representative of the coastal strawberry production area. Solarization treatments were applied from late July through September for October plantings. Treatments were equally effective in reducing baited populations of Phytophthora cactorum [(Lebert and Cohn) J. Schröt] (1989-90) and P. citricola Sawada (1990-91) when compared to pathogen survival in nontreated soil. Solarization and MBC reduced Verticillium dahliae Kleb inocnlnm in 1989-90, but MBC gave superior control in 1990-91. Solarization significantly controlled annual weeds, but was less effective than MBC. In 1989-90, solarization alone increased strawberry yield 12 % over the yield of nontreated plots; when combined with MS, yield increase was 29%, equivalent to that achieved with MBC fumigation. Treatments were equally effective in increasing yields in the 1990-91 test. Chemical names used: sodium N -methyldithiocarbamate (metam sodium), chloropicrin nitrotrichloromethane (chloropicrin).

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Jillene R. Summers, Gail R. Nonnecke, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Richard C. Schultz and Thomas M. Isenhart

Improving soil quality and suppressing weeds are two challenges facing strawberry growers. Cover crops, such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense), have been used in rotation with strawberry in the Midwest. The objective of the field study was to investigate the effects of various cover crops on soil quality and weed populations for strawberry production. The experiment was established in 1996 at the Iowa State Univ. Horticulture Station, Ames, in plots that previously were planted continuously in strawberry for 10 years. Nine treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Treatments included cover crops of Indian grass (Sorghastrum avenaceum), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), marigold (Tagetes erecta `Crackerjack'), sorghum-sudangrass, perennial ryegrass, strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa `Honeoye'), and bare soil (control). Data from 1998 showed that both annual and perennial cover crops were established more readily (higher treatment-plant populations and less weed populations) than in 1997. Water infiltration rates were highest in bare soil plots and lowest in P. virgatum plots. Bare soil plots and S. sudanense plots had the lowest percent soil moisture.