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Richard H. Munson


Western soapberry (Sapindus drummondii Hook & Arn.) seeds were collected in Sept. 1982 and scarified with acid or hot water, or treated by freezing. The seeds were sown immediately or after cold-moist stratification for 90 days. Best germination was achieved with acid scarified and stratified seeds followed by hot water treatment plus stratification and freezing plus stratification. Stratification significantly increased the germination of all treatments by a combined average of 25%. Acid scarification for 60 or 90 min provided better germination than scarification periods of 30 or 120 min. Seeds collected in Nov. 1982 and Mar. 1983 germinated as well as seeds collected in Sept. 1982. For maximum germination, fall or winter collection of seeds followed by 60 min acid scarification and 90 days cold moist stratification is recommended.

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Angela M. Madeiras, Thomas H. Boyle, and Wesley R. Autio

) suggests cold stratification at 33 to 38 °F (0 to 5 °C) for 2 months to break dormancy in P. pilosa seeds. Specialty Perennials (2006) recommends freezing P. pilosa seed for 2 weeks before sowing, then incubating seed trays in darkness at 70 °F (20 °C

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Michael W. Smith, Becky S. Cheary, and Becky L. Carroll

Parameters were defined to germinate pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] seeds in aerated water followed by container planting. Germination was not affected by the ratio of seeds to water in the germination containers. Highest germination rates with the greatest uniformity in germination were obtained with a water bath temperature of 32 °C. Stratification up to 188 days increased the rate of germination, but the largest response was between no stratification and 56 days (6.5 days vs. 2.3 days to reach 50% germination, respectively). Seeds that were germinated in a water bath, then planted in containers, achieved 50% emergence in 4.7 days compared to 12.4 days for direct-planted seed. Emergence was more uniform when seeds were germinated in water before planting compared with seeds that were directly planted in containers (7.0 days vs. 9.5 days between 10% and 90% emergence, respectively). Also, by germinating the seeds before planting, nonviable seeds were eliminated, resulting in 100% emergence compared to 76% emergence when planted directly.

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Michael Stein, Corina Serban, and Per McCord

germination during the winter, when chances of survival are lowest ( Finkelstein et al., 2008 ; Kermode, 2005 ). In breeding programs, the current method of removing endodormancy is through stratification, which involves simulating winter by keeping seeds

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Esther E. McGinnis and Mary H. Meyer

more of the following treatments: 1) after-ripening (dry storage of seeds under ambient temperatures before sowing), 2) GA 3 , and 3) cold stratification ( Baskin and Baskin, 1998 , 2004 ). Broom sedge ( Carex scoparia ) germination was enhanced by up

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Frank Balestri and William R. Graves

American robins ( Turdus migratorious L.), but was <1% when pulp remained intact ( Cipollini and Levey, 1997 ). We therefore quantified the seed germination of Nyssa spp. by using both intact drupes and seeds cleaned of pulp. Cold stratification is

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Bridget Bolt, Anna Baloh, Roberta Magnani, Marta Nosarzewski, Carlos Rodriguez López, and Robert Geneve

4 months of chilling stratification to relieve dormancy ( Baskin and Baskin 2014 ; Davies et al. 2018 ; Lin et al. 2009 ; Schopmeyer 1974 ). Although 3 to 4 months of stratification is usually successful in promoting high germination percentages

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Anna J. Talcott and William R. Graves

and Harrington, 1997 ; McLeod and Murphy, 1977 ; USDA Forest Service, 1948 ). With 3 to 4 months of cold stratification, 28% germination was reported ( USDA Forest Service, 1948 ). Other researchers who stratified seeds for 18 weeks found differences

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Natalie Anderson* and David Byrne

Poor germination in Rosa has been an obstacle to breeding programs for years. Rose breeders generally stratify rose seed under cool, moist conditions for 4-10 weeks by planting directly into the seedling flat/bed or in a small container followed by planting the germinating seed into the seedling flat/bed. This experiment used 9 genotypes and compared these two approaches combined with variations in the stratification media (sand, perlite, sphagnum moss and Sunshine Mix #4). Over all stratification media and genotypes, germination was not influenced by whether the seed was stratified directly in the seedling flat/bed or in a small container. However, the process of transplantation of the delicate germinating seed from the small container to the flat/bed resulted in greater mortality of the germinating seedlings. he stratification media affected the germination of the rose seed. Sunshine Mix #4 gave the best germination as compared to all other media types tested. As expected the germination of the genotypes varied greatly, ranging from 0.7% to 37.1%.

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Ana Morales-Sillero, María Paz Suárez, María Rocío Jiménez, Laura Casanova, José Ordovás, and Pilar Rallo

well as the speed of the process. Different authors proposed cold stratification in wet conditions to eliminate this type of dormancy ( Crisosto and Sutter, 1985 ; Istanbouli, 1981 ; Lagarda et al., 1983 ). Alvarado (1994) and Santos-Antunes (1999