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Yutaka Mimura, Masami Yoshikawa, and Masashi Hirai

., 2001 ; Matsunaga and Monma, 1999 ; Tsuro et al., 2007 ). This suggests the occurrence of highly virulent strains in Japan. Hashimoto et al. made a survey of 81 isolates of the pathogen classified as biovars 3 or 4 in Kyoto, Japan, and found a highly

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Eckhard Grimm, Stefanie Peschel, and Moritz Knoche

exocarp segments for morphometric analysis. The exocarp of sweet cherry fruit is subjected to elastic strain and on excision of an exocarp segment (ES), this strain is released ( Grimm et al., 2012 ). To maintain the elastic strain of an ES beyond excision

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Sandra L. Uratsu, Hamid Ahmadi, Royce S. Bringhurst, and Abhaya M. Dandekar

1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. We are grateful to the following for providing us with Agrobacterium strains: M.D. Chilton (A208);. C.I. Kado (C58, Ach5); E.W. Nester (A722, A281, A4, R1000); V

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Eckhard Grimm, Stefanie Peschel, Tobias Becker, and Moritz Knoche

excessive water uptake by the fruit ( Christensen, 1996 ; Sekse, 1998 ). Water uptake increases fruit volume and turgor, thus subjecting the peripheral dermal tissues to tangential strain and stress. When the limits of extensibility are exceeded, the dermal

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Moritz Knoche, Bishnu P. Khanal, and Matej Stopar

). Therefore, it may be hypothesized that GA 4+7 reduces russeting by decreasing the formation of microcracks in the cuticle and that GA 4+7 -reduced microcracking is related to increased CM deposition and decreased strain of the CM in the course of

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Nihat Guner, Zvezdana Pesic-VanEsbroeck, Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, and Todd C. Wehner

the United States are Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W, formerly Watermelon mosaic virus-1 ), and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, formerly Watermelon mosaic virus-2 ) ( Ali et al., 2012 ; Chen

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani

Merging new orchard designs with an efficient rootstock and high-coloring strain of an apple cultivar can result in production of higher yield with better fruit quality ( Fallahi et al., 2011 ; Marini et al., 2008 ; Veberic et al., 2007

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Moritz Knoche and Stefanie Peschel

strain of the CM is closely and positively related to frequency and severity of microscopic cracks in the CM ( Knoche and Peschel, 2006 ). Cracks impair the barrier function of the CM and serve as entry ports for fruit rot pathogens, including Botrytis

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Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

) of two, mechanistically unrelated, factors. First, the net import of water into the fruit will affect cracking by causing fruit volume to increase, thereby straining the skin beyond some defined upper limit. Second, mechanical properties of the fruit

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Ji-Jhong Chen, Jeanette Norton, Heidi Kratsch, Youping Sun, and Larry Rupp

conducted to investigate the diversity of Frankia strains in nodules of inoculated actinorhizal plants ( Jeong and Myrold, 2001 ; Myrold and Huss-Danell, 1994 ). Recently, researchers used comparative sequence analyses (e.g., gln II, nif H, rec A, and