litchi pericarp ( Chen et al., 2013a , 2013b ) has been analyzed, but how mechanical injury affects the storage quality of litchi is still unknown. Accurate detection of the initial mechanical injury to litchi is crucial for postharvest litchi management
Sai Xu, Huazhong Lu, and Xiuxiu Sun
Anne M. Hanchek and Arthur C. Cameron
The effect of harvest dates between September and December on regrowth after storage of field-grown Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg × Sweet `Sunburst' and `Sunray', Geum quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw', Gypsophila paniculata L. `Snowflake', Iberis sempervirens L. `Snowflake', and Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem. crowns was determined. After 0 to 7 months of storage at 0C, stored crowns were repotted and grown in a greenhouse. Plants from later harvests were of higher quality than those from earlier harvests, showing higher rates of survival after longer storage periods, less mold development in storage, and stronger regrowth after storage. Late field harvest is recommended for optimum storage quality.
Xingbin Xie, Congbing Fang, and Yan Wang
affects chlorophyll degradation at the molecular level in european pears. This work was designed to assess the effect of 1-MCP treatments at harvest on ethylene biosynthesis, chlorophyll degradation, and storage quality of ‘Bosc’ pears during long
Cynthia L. Barden and Larry A. Hull
`Golden Delicious', `Delicious', and `York Imperial' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) with various amounts of tufted apple bud moth (TABM) [Platynota idaeusalis (Walker)] feeding injury were evaluated for quality at harvest and following storage in air and controlled atmosphere. In addition, apples were artificially injured during two seasons to mimic TABM feeding injury. There was little or no effect of natural TABM injury on the quality of apples in many experiments. At harvest, firmness was not influenced by natural TABM injury, soluble solids concentration (SSC) was increased in three of 11 experiments, and starch levels decreased in two of 11 experiments. These results indicate a slight advancement of maturity of injured fruit. More severely injured fruit tended to have more decay after storage than fruit with less injury. Some injury, especially first brood injury, up to ≈7 to 10 mm2 surface damage, can be tolerated without compromising storage quality of processing apples. However, severe injury (>79 mm2) can increase decay. Second brood injury, whether caused by natural feeding of TABM or through artificial means, usually caused a higher incidence of decay than first brood injury. Artificial injury imposed close to harvest led to more decay in storage than did similar injury imposed earlier.
Steven Pao, Peter D. Petracek, and G. Eldon Brown
An enzymatic peeling process is currently used to produce peeled citrus fruit that are convenient for consumption. By this process, fruit are scored and infused with pectinase or pectinase and cellulase solution and are incubated at 20 to 45C for 0.5 to 2 h. While enzyme solution apparently weakens of the albedo and thus improves separation of the fruit from its peel, we expect that enzyme infused into the flesh reduces storage quality. In these studies, fruit were vacuum- or pressure-infused with or without pectinase in water. The time required to peel white `Marsh' and `Ruby Red' grapefruit infused with solution containing enzyme were only 10% to 20% less than for fruit infused with water alone. `Hamlin' orange and `Orlando' tangelo peeling times were not improved by enzyme treatment. This suggests that water is the primary operative component of the enzyme solution and that the enzyme is an active, but nonessential, supplement. For white grapefruit and oranges stored at 5, 10, 15, or 25C, nonenzyme-treated fruit had significantly less juice leakage than enzyme-treated fruit. For example, 0.2% and 5.0% of the peeled fruit weight was lost by non-enzymatically and enzymatically peeled fruit, respectively, for vacuum-infused oranges stored at 5C for 7 days. Moreover, the enzyme treatment significantly reduced firmness, as determined by a sensory panel. Microbial levels and rates of respiration and ethylene emanation during storage were not significantly affected by enzyme treatment. Similar results were found for vacuum- and pressure-infused fruit.
Caihong Zhong, Shengmei Wang, Zhengwang Jiang, and Hongwen Huang
’, dominate the international kiwifruit market because of good marketability and outstanding storage quality. However, during the past two decades, yellow-fleshed kiwifruit such as ‘Hort16A’ in New Zealand and ‘Jintao’ in China have also been developed. These
İbrahim Kahramanoğlu and Serhat Usanmaz
for research. Current postharvest studies are mainly focusing on the use of biomaterials, including essential oils (EOs), edible coatings, and plant extracts to preserve storage quality in fresh produce ( Silvestre et al., 2011 ). Previous studies have
D. Mark Hodges, Charles F. Forney, and Wendy Wismer
The degree of damage that may occur through harvesting and packing represents one of the major factors that can affect quality of fresh-cut produce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different steps in a representative fresh-cut processing line on storage quality of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). To this end, spinach leaves were removed at successive points on the line: 1) before entry into the line (control); 2) after a shaking procedure but before initial rinsing with 10 °C water + 5 mg·L-1 chlorine dioxide; 3) after centrifugal drying; and 4) after commercial packaging. After removal from the different points in the line, the spinach samples were stored at 10 °C for 16 days, during which time malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (lipid peroxidation assay), electrolyte leakage (membrane leakiness), chlorophyll content (a, b, and total), and color attributes (L, saturation, hue angle) were measured. Both lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage increased with time of storage and with stage of procesing. Electrolyte leakage increased most in material removed after the shaking procedure, but prior to hydrocooling. Overall total chlorophyll loss during storage did not change with time of removal from the processing line, although overall chlorophyll b content decreased in stored material 8 days following centrifugal drying and packaging. A more rapid loss in chlorophyll a relative to chlorophyll b over the first 8 days of storage was reflected in hue angle measurements regardless of the point of removal. The processing line under study, thus had both beneficial and detrimental effects on storage quality of spinach. Detrimental effects associated with centrifugal drying and packaging procedures could be modified to improve quality.
Carl J. Rosen and Cindy B.S. Tongn
Two on-farm field studies were conducted in 1996 and repeated in 1997 to determine the effects of soil amendments and scape (flower stalk) removal on yield, dry matter partitioning, and storage quality of hardneck garlic (Allium sativum L.). One study site was on a loamy sand soil with low organic matter and fertility and the other site was on a sandy loam soil with high organic matter and fertility. Soil amendment treatments tested at both sites were: 1) no amendment, 2) composted manure, and 3) inorganic fertilizer according to soil test recommendations. A fourth treatment, dried, composted turkey-manure-based fertilizer, was included at the low organic matter site. Scapes were removed at the curled stage from plants in half of the harvest rows. Scapes from the remainder of the harvest row plants were allowed to mature until harvest. In 1997, bulbs from each treatment were stored at 0 to 3 °C or 19 to 21 °C for 6 months. Soil amendment treatments had no effect on total garlic bulb yield, dry mass partitioning, or stored bulb weight loss at the sandy loam, high organic matter site. Manure compost, fertilizer, and composted turkey manure soil amendments reduced the yield of smaller bulbs compared with the control at the loamy sand, low organic matter site. The proportion of bulbs >5 cm was highest with the manure compost treatment. At the low organic matter site, scape removal resulted in a 15% increase in bulb yield and an increase in bulb size compared with leaving scapes on until harvest (P = 0.05). At the high organic matter site, scape removal increased bulb yield by 5% (P = 0.10). Scape removal increased dry matter partitioning to the bulbs, but had no effect on total (scape + shoot + bulb) aboveground dry matter production. The increase in bulb dry mass when scapes were removed was offset by an increase in scape dry mass when scapes were left on. Bulb weight loss in storage was less at 0 to 3 °C than 19 to 21 °C. Soil amendments only affected bulb storage quality at the loamy sand, low soil organic matter site. The effect of scape removal on bulb weight loss was nonsignificant at either location.
Marisa M. Wall
Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] roots of three Hawaii-grown cultivars (`Mokuau', `Okinawan', and `Yoshida') were treated with 0, 200, or 400 Gy x-ray irradiation and stored for 12 weeks at 15 °C. The storage quality of nonirradiated and irradiated roots was compared for weight loss, sprouting, firmness, color, postharvest decay, and carbohydrate concentrations. Nonirradiated roots lost 3 to 4% weight during storage, whereas roots treated with 400 Gy lost 4.7% to 8.6% weight. Sprouting was negligible for all treatments. Storage tended to increase root firmness, while irradiation tended to decrease firmness. When all cultivars were averaged, sweetpotatoes treated with 400 Gy and stored for 12 weeks had the lowest starch concentrations and highest total sugar concentrations. Glucose and fructose concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but these sugars increased during storage. Sucrose concentrations of roots irradiated with 400 Gy were double those of nontreated roots after 12 weeks storage. The purple-fleshed cultivars, `Mokuau' and `Okinawan', retained good quality following irradiation and storage, but firmness decreased somewhat for roots treated with 400 Gy. The `Okinawan' sweetpotato is the primary export cultivar from Hawaii. For the white-fleshed cultivar, `Yoshida', postharvest decay adversely impacted the internal color, firmness, and overall quality of roots treated with 400 Gy and stored for 12 weeks.