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Akihiro Itai and Naoko Fujita

., 1981 ). In Asian pears, climacteric-type fruits have a low storage potential, whereas nonclimacteric fruits maintain fruit quality for over 1 month in storage ( Itai et al., 1999 , 2003a ; Kitamura et al., 1981 ). Therefore, fruit storage potential is

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Ibrahim Demir and Kazim Mavi

the vigor of cucurbit seed lots by means of CD and AA tests, but there is little work to correlate these tests with seed storage potential. The work described here was conducted to fill this information gap and thus improve the management of seed

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Carolina Contreras, Mauricio González-Agüero, and Bruno G. Defilippi

shipping purposes, pepinos are harvested at an early ripening stage, because they are highly sensitive to bruising ( Huyskens-Keil et al., 2006 ). Postharvest Handling and Physiological Disorders One of the first reports on pepino storage potential was

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Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Nobuhiro Kotoda, and Kazuyuki Abe

and labor. On the contrary, the reduction rate of turgor does not relate to the occurrence of mealiness and seems to be a better index than the softening rate to select a parent for producing cultivars with good storage potential. The softening rate of

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Cynthia L. Barden

High-quality processing and fresh market cultivars are critical to the Mid-Atlantic apple industry. Dual purpose cultivars such as `Ginger Gold' and `Nittany' are of particular interest. `Ginger Gold' is an early cultivar harvested in mid to late August and is of interest to processors in the area. Early cultivars typically do not store well. The at-harvest quality is high and we have initiated studies to determine if quality of `Ginger Gold' can be maintained in storage for an acceptable length of time. Apples harvested 25 Aug. were placed in three storage atmospheres: air, 3% O2 + <2% CO2, or 0.7% O2 + 1% CO2, all at 0°C. At harvest the firmness was 85 N with soluble solids concentration (SSC) of 12.6. After 4 months of storage both CA treatments maintained firmness better than the air control treatment. SSC and decay were not different among storage treatments (SS = 13.5 and % decay = 5%–8%). Data indicate that `Ginger Gold' can be stored for some time in CA and that low-oxygen storage may be beneficial. `Nittany' apples harvested 6 Oct. were placed in 2 storage atmospheres - 3% O2 + <2% CO2 or 0.7% O2 + 1% CO2. At harvest the firmness was 85 N and the SSC was 12.7. After 6 months in storage the fruit in low O2 were firmer than in standard CA. The SSC was 14.5 and decay 6% for all samples.

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T.M. Gradziel, W. Beres, J. Doyle, and C. Weeks

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Max G. Villalobos-Acuña, William V. Biasi, Sylvia Flores, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Rachel B. Elkins, and Neil H. Willits

Preharvest applications of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) were tested on California ‘Bartlett’ pears at 80 N maturity and at rates of 0, 28, and 56 mg·L−1 in 2006 and 0, 50, and 100 mg·L−1 in 2007. In 2007, a parallel experiment was conducted to compare 50 mg·L−1 1-MCP with 96 g a.i./ha 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) used commercially to control or decrease premature fruit drop. Premature fruit drop, maturity, firmness at harvest, color, softening, and ethylene production during ripening and physiological disorders were studied in fruit harvested between 7 and 21 days after 1-MCP application and either ripened at 20 °C immediately after harvest or after 3.5 to 6 months storage at –1 °C. Overall, 50 mg·L−1 1-MCP reduced the incidence of premature fruit drop when compared with the untreated fruit and fruit drop was similar to adjuvant-treated fruit and NAA-treated fruit, especially 28 days or longer after the treatment. 1-MCP was more effective in retarding color, softening, and ethylene production during ripening than delaying fruit maturation on the tree (loss of firmness), and both rates of 1-MCP tested each season yielded similar fruit responses on most evaluation times. 1-MCP's effect on ripening was lost if fruit remained on the tree 21 days or after the fruit were stored for 3.5 months in cold storage regardless of treatment concentration. A reduction of internal breakdown incidence was observed in 1-MCP-treated fruit.

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William D. Wolk, O.L. Lau, G.H. Neilsen, and Brian G. Drought

A study was undertaken to identify key factors associated with storage disorders in three commercially important apple cultivars in British Columbia and to determine how early in the season associations could be measured. Fruit mass, density, and concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and dry matter were determined for `McIntosh', `Spartan', and `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh) from ≈30 commercial orchards 9, 6, 3, and 0 weeks before harvest. Storage samples were collected at commercial harvest and evaluated for the development of internal breakdown (`McIntosh' and `Spartan') or bitter pit (`Golden Delicious') after 4 and 6 months of 0 °C air storage. Mass and [Ca] and the mass/[Ca] and [K]/[Ca] ratios were the factors most often significantly correlated with storage disorders within each year for all three cultivars. Correlations were as frequently significant 6 and 3 weeks before harvest as they were at harvest. Mass of `McIntosh' and `Spartan' was the only variable consistently related with breakdown in all 3 years of the study. There were no variables with a consistent relationship to bitter pit in `Golden Delicious'. Fruit [Ca] was associated with the relative levels of disorders within years but could not be associated with specific levels of disorders across all years.

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A.G. Reynolds, D.A. Wardle, C. Zurowski, and N.E. Looney

One of three levels (O, 1, 10 mg·liter-1) of the cytokinin-active substituted phenylurea compound CPPU was applied with or without 100 mg GA/liter to developing clusters of `Sovereign Coronation' and Summerland Selection 495 grapes (Vitis spp.). In a similar experiment, one of three levels (0, 1, 10 mg·liter-) of either CPPU or the related compound thidiazuron was applied to `Simone' and Summerland Selection 535. Both phenylurea chemicals tended to linearly increase cluster weight and berry weight while reducing degrees Brix, pH, and anthocyanins and increasing titratable acidity. A subsequent trial with O, 4, and 8 mg thidiazuron/liter on all four varieties yielded similar results. GA had no individual or synergistic effects. Due to the very low concentrations required, CPPU and thidiazuron show great promise as chemical tools for the increase of berry weight in seedless table grapes. Chemical names used: N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl) -N'-phenylurea (CPPU); N1-phenyl-N'-l,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (thidiazuron);

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Carlos H. Crisosto, David Garner, and Gayle Crisosto

Efficacy of controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions for decay control in 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes was evaluated during the 1998-2000 seasons. During the 1998 season, early (16.5% soluble solids concentration = SSC) and late harvested (19% SSC) grapes were exposed to 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, or 25% CO2 combined with 3%, 6%, and 12% O2. In 1999 and 2000, 10% or 15% CO2 combined with 3%, 6%, or 12% O2 were used. In all trials, fruit were initially SO2 fumigated and air-stored grapes were used as controls. Storage atmospheres did not affect SSC, titratable acidity (TA), or sugar-to-acid ratio (SSC: TA). The main storage limitations for early harvested 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes were “off flavor” and rachis and berry browning development, which resulted from exposure to >10% CO2. However, ≥15% CO2 was needed to control total decay and nesting development independent of O2 concentrations. High carbon dioxide atmospheres (15% to 25%) were more effective in decay control without detrimental effects on quality when late harvested grapes were used. The combination of 15% CO2 with 3%, 6%, or 12% O2 is suggested for up to 3 months storage only for late harvested 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes; it should not be used for early harvested grapes.