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Xiao-ting Li and Jian-ping Bao

Stone cells are among the major factors affecting fruit quality and taste. With the development of social economy, the standards set for the appearance and taste of pear fruit are becoming increasingly demanding. Stone cells are the result of

Free access

Kendra M. Blaker and James W. Olmstead

mostly parenchyma cells along with rings of vascular bundles and occasional sclerified stone cells that can be found ≈460 to 920 μm below the epidermis ( Gough, 1983 ). These lignified cells with thick secondary cell walls can occur singly, doubly, or in

Free access

Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi

The stone cells events in the process of lignifications of plant tissues in flesh of Asian pear have been growing as a depressing factor of fruit quality. Therefore, these studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes, and to determine the effects of drought stress and calcium foliar application on the formation of stone cell. Fruit quality as contents of the stone cells, such as texture profile, reducing sugars, firmness, and fruit size, were determined. During the growing season of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, Pyrus communis cv. Bartlett and Pyrus ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).

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Xiaogang Li, Ling Jin, Zhongchun Jiang*, Nianjun Teng, and Baolong Sheng

The freezing method combined with enzymolysis was used to determine the content of stone cells of 70 pear varieties for the purpose of identifying the relationship between the content of stone cells and pulp quality. The results demonstrated that the content of stone cells was strongly correlated with pear quality. The majority of the stone cells in all the varieties had diameters of 0.25-0.5 mm; the weight of the stone cells with diameters in this range differed significantly among pear varieties. In addition, the varieties with a higher content of stone cells contained a higher content of coarse pulp than the varieties with a lower content of stone cells.

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Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi

To find out the formation time of stone cell, drought stress, isolated from water by plastic house, was inflicted on pear trees at 30 days before full bloom, full bloom stage, 30 days after full bloom and 60 days after full bloom during 30 days, respectively. Adhesiveness, gumminess, cohesiveness and chewiness increased suddenly in fruits contained stone cell more then 28.0mg/g in flesh and hardness was higher in pear fruit with higher stone cells, but the changes of the springiness as contents of the stone cells showed no difference. By optical microscope, stone cell observed first from 14 days after full bloom. The adjacent cells to stone cell was first showed spherical type on initial forming stage but showed radial form at 90 days after full bloom. The shape of stone cell inspected by SEM was like a cluster and its size was various. By using TEM, components of stone cell, such as nucleus and vacuole, and secondary cell wall thickening were observed, so it could consider that the stone cell is living thing. The largest amount of stone cell clusters existed beneath fruit skin. The stone cell in flesh enlarged by drought stress compared to control, and then stone cell per areas was the largest at 30 days after full bloom. Therefore, it seems that the drought stress became a cause of inducing stone cell. The stone cell was decreased by the application of calcium chloride 0.5 %, on 30 days after full bloom. Also, fruit firmness was increased compared to control on harvest time. Calcium chloride application showed a possibility for the inhibition of stone cell formation

Free access

Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi

The stone cells are observed in the process of lignifications of tissues in flesh of pear as a depressing factor of fruit quality. These studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes. During the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, P. communis cv. Bartlett and P. ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). By optical microscope, stone cell observed first from 14 days after full bloom. The adjacent cells to stone cell was first showed spherical type on initial forming stage but showed radial form at 90 days after full bloom. The shape of stone cell inspected by SEM was like a cluster and its size was various. By using TEM, components of stone cell, such as nucleus and vacuole, and secondary cell wall thickening were observed, so it could consider that the stone cell is living thing. The largest amount of stone cell clusters existed beneath fruit skin.

Open access

R.E. Gough

Abstract

Stone cells of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were distributed primarily toward the periphery of the fruit; they apparently differentiated from ground parenchyma shortly after anthesis. Secondary cell wall material continued to be accreted through harvest, with lamellations about 1μm in width. The lignified walls were heavily pitted, with pits contiguous with those of adjacent stone cells. The number of stone cells may be correlated positively to the length of the growth season for each cultivar.

Open access

Wen-hui Li, Jian-rong Feng, Shi-kui Zhang, and Zhang-hu Tang

area. The intrinsic qualities of coarse fruits include light taste, low sugar content, higher acidity, more stone cells, and poor taste ( Ma, 2010 ). Coarse ‘Korla’ fragrant fruits began to appear rough-skinned or exhibit hard end symptoms 90 DAF and

Free access

Shutian Tao, Danyang Wang, Cong Jin, Wei Sun, Xing Liu, Shaoling Zhang, Fuyong Gao, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

important commercial Asiatic pear cultivar grown in the world. Stone cells are rare in other fruit but are important features of fruit quality in pear. Pear flavor and quality can be affected by stone cell content and size, characteristics for which genetic

Free access

Thomas Sotiropoulos, Georgios Syrgianidis, Nikolaos Koutinas, Antonios Petridis, and Dimitrios Almaliotis

different among the cultivars. The flesh is yellow–white, juicy, sweet–flavorful, and fine-grained with very few stone cells (scleroids). The skin is green, blushed red with sun exposure, smooth, free of russeting, and has no tendency to become waxy in