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Dangyang Ke and Adel A. Kader

Fruits of peach (Prunus persica L., cv. `Fairtime') and plum (Prunus domestica L., cv. `Angeleno') were kept in air and in 0.25% or 0.02% O2 at 0, 5, or 10°C for 3 to 40 days to study the effects of temperatures and insecticidal low O2 atmospheres on their physiological responses and quality attributes. Exposure to low O2 atmospheres reduced respiration and ethylene production rates of the stone fruits. The low O2 treatments retarded color change and flesh softening of plums and maintained acidity of peaches. Exposure to the low O2 atmospheres also delayed incidence and reduced severity of internal breakdown (chilling injury) and decay of the peaches at 5°C and, therefore, maintained both external and internal appearance qualities of the fruits longer than those kept in air. The most important limiting factor for fruit tolerance to insecticidal low O2 atmospheres was development of alcoholic off-flavor which was associated with accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the fruits. The peaches and plums could tolerate exposures to the low O2 atmospheres for 9 to 40 days, depending on the temperature and O2 level used. These results suggest that stone fruits are quite tolerant to insecticidal low O2 atmospheres.

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Stephen S. Miller and Mark W. Brown

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Max W. Williams

Two chemicals being tested as blossom thinners for apple are effective for bloom thinning of peaches and nectarines. Monocarbamide dihydrogen sulfate (Wilthin) and Endothall applied at 90% of bloom open reduced fruit set by 50%. Fruit size and quality of the crop were improved. Both of the above chemicals gave adequate fruit removal without serious phytotoxic effects on leaves, buds or shoots. With chemical rates which over thinned, no fruit marking occurred on either nectarines or peaches.

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Robert Fritts Jr. and Daniel L. Ward

Release LC (Abbott Laboratories), a commercial formulation of gibberellins, was applied to apricot, cling peach, freestone peach, nectarine, and plum varieties. Application was by commercial airblast sprayer. Fruit firmness was increased in the season of application in all crops. Meta analysis of the data indicated a maximum response for each crop differed over the rate range of 16 to 48 g a.i./acre. Changes in fruit soluble solids were slight. No differences in fruit color were observed. Reduction in flower bud density (thinning) was observed the following season. The reduction in bud density reduced the time required to hand-thin to a commercially acceptable level. A difference in thinning sensitivity to gibberellin was evident between crops.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, James R. McFerson, Ross E. Byers, Robert C. Ebel, Robert T. Boozer, Jim Pitts and Bryan S. Wilkins

Effects of Tergitol-TMN-6 surfactant on blossom thinning (fruit set), fruit quality, and yield were studied in different cultivars of peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) during 2003 to 2005, and in one cultivar of nectarine Prunus persica [L.] in one orchard and one cultivar of plum (Prunus domestica [L.]) in two orchards in 2004. In addition to Tergitol-TMN-6, effects of Crocker's fish oil (CFO) alone in three peach cultivars or in combination with lime sulfur in a nectarine cultivar were studied on fruit set, quality, and yield. Tergitol-TMN-6 at 5 mL·L–1 or higher rates, applied at about 75% to 85% bloom, reduced fruit set without russeting peach fruit. Peach fruit size was often increased by Tergitol-TMN-6 treatment. Applications of Tergitol at 20 mL·L–1 or 30 mL·L–1 excessively thinned peaches. Tergitol-TMN-6 at all rates burned foliage, but the symptoms disappeared after a few weeks without any adverse effects on tree productivity. Tergitol-TMN-6 at 7.5 mL·L–1 or 10 mL·L–1, applied either once at about 80% to 85% bloom or twice at 35% bloom and again at 80% to 85% bloom, reduced fruit set without any fruit russeting in nectarine. Tergitol-TMN-6 at 7.5 mL·L–1 to 12.5 mL·L–1 reduced fruit set in `Empress' plum. CFO at 30 mL·L–1 was effective in blossom thinning of some peach cultivars. A combination of lime sulfur and CFO was not effective in blossom thinning of nectarine. Considering results from several orchards in different locations in the Pacific Northwest over 3 years, Tergitol-TMN-6 is an excellent blossom thinner for peach, nectarine, and plum at rates of 7.5 to 12.5 mL·L–1, sprayed at a spray volume of 1870.8 L·ha–1 when about 75% to 85% blooms are open.

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A.M. Boland, P.H. Jerie, P.D. Mitchell, I. Goodwin and D.J. Connor

Individual and interactive effects of restricted root volume (RRV) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on productivity and water use of peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch `Golden Queen'] were studied over 3 years (1992-95). Trees were grown in lysimeters of five different soil volumes (0.025, 0.06, 0.15, 0.4, and 1.0 m3) with either full or deficit (RDI) irrigation. In Years 3 and 4, fruit size was reduced by up to 30% on trees in the two smallest volumes. Tree water use was positively related to increasing soil volume (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0.011) in all years ranging from 1.8 to 4.4 L·mm-1 Epan in the post-RDI period of Year 2. Water use of deficit-irrigated trees was less than fully irrigated trees and there was an interaction between soil volume and irrigation treatment during RDI. Water relations did not limit growth or productivity. Tree water use was reduced under root restriction as a consequence of canopy demand rather than leaf function. Results suggest that a combination of restricted root volume and development of water stress achieve the RDI response in the Goulburn Valley, Australia.

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Antonio J. Felipe

‘Felinem’, ‘Garnem’, and ‘Monegro’ are three almond × peach hybrid rootstocks released to address the problems of Prunus growing in Mediterranean conditions not solved by the presently available rootstocks. These new rootstocks are characterized by red leaves, good vigor, easy clonal propagation, resistance to root-knot nematodes, adaptation to calcareous soils and other Mediterranean agroecological conditions, and graft compatibility with the whole range of peach and almond cultivars as well as some plum and apricot cultivars.

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Lisa G. Neven

temperature controlled atmosphere quarantine treatment for pome and stone fruits Acta Hort. 553 457 460 Neven, L. Mitcham, E. 1996 CATTS (Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System): A novel tool for the

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Jorge Pinochet, Carolina Fernández, Cinta Calvet, Adriana Hernández-Dorrego and Antonio Felipe

Twenty-nine commercial and experimental Prunus rootstocks, most with incorporated root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne javanica (Traub.) Chitwood] resistance, were evaluated against mixtures comprising nine populations of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus vulnus Allen and Jensen. Nearly all tested materials were susceptible. Five cultivars with high resistant levels were further challenged with seven P. vulnus populations individually. `Redglow' (Prunus salicina Lindl. × P. munsoniana Wight and Hedrick) was the only rootstock that showed broad resistance to all populations. The rootstocks `Torinel' (P. domestica L.), AC-595 (P. domestica × P. insititia L.), `Marianna 4001' (P. cerasifera Ehr. × P. munsoniana), and `Felinem' [P. dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb × P. persica (L.) Batsch] showed resistance to one or a few P. vulnus populations. Several supposedly resistant sources proved to be susceptible. Tests of crosses made between parents of diverse genetic background with partial resistance to P. vulnus indicate that a descendant with potential P. vulnus resistance is difficult to obtain. Pathogenic diversity among P. vulnus populations appears to be high.

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Shengrui Yao

from that of pome and stone fruits. We used 2 mm green as the budding stage standard ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1. Jujube in the budding stage with 2 mm green. The pollen germination studies were conducted around the full bloom or late full bloom period from late