Traits associated with drought resistance vary with provenance of hard maples (Acer sp.), but the stability of differences ex situ and over time is unknown. We compared growth, dry-matter partitioning, leaf anatomy, and water relations of seedlings from central Iowa, eastern Iowa, and the northeastern United States over 2 years. Some seedlings from each of the three provenances were used as well-irrigated controls. The remaining seedlings were drought-stressed and irrigated based on evapotranspiration. Across irrigation treatments, plants from Iowa had shorter stems and higher specific weight of lamina, root: shoot dry-weight ratios, and root: lamina dry-weight ratios than did plants from the northeastern United States when treatments began. Biomass partitioning did not differ based on provenance after irrigation treatment for 2 years, but leaves from central Iowa had a higher specific weight, and their abaxial surfaces had more stomates and trichomes, than did leaves from the Northeast. Drought stress reduced conductance only in plants from central Iowa. Across provenances, drought stress reduced stomatal frequency, surface area of laminae, and dry weights of laminae and roots, and increased root: shoot dry-weight ratio. Leaf water potential of plants subjected to drought was lower at predawn and higher at midday than that of control plants. Drought did not cause osmotic adjustment in leaves. We conclude that the stability of foliar differences among provenances of hard maples validates using these traits as criteria for selecting ecotypes for use in managed landscapes prone to drought.
Rolston St. Hilaire and William R. Graves
Rolston St. Hilaire and William R. Graves
Selection of sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and black maples (Acer saccharum Marsh. ssp. nigrum Desm. or Acer nigrum Michx. f.) that will be more resilient than existing cultivars in managed landscapes could be facilitated by defining relationships between geographic origin and foliar traits critical to leaf function. We examined variation in leaf morphology and anatomy of both taxa, known collectively as hard maples, near 43 °N latitude and tested for relationships between foliar traits and the longitude of origin from 70 ° to 94 °W longitude. Leaves exposed to direct solar radiation were sampled from up to 20 trees indigenous at each of 42 sites during 1995 and 1996. All leaves from east of 75.84 °W and from 92.73 °W and further west expressed morphological characters associated with sugar maple and black maple, respectively; leaves with intermediate traits were found between these two longitudes. Leaves from 90 ° to 94 °W had the highest surface area due to increases in the areas of middle and proximal portions of laminae. Up to 1162 trichomes/cm2 were present on the abaxial surface of laminae from west of 85 °W, while laminae from further east were glabrous or had ≤300 trichomes/cm2. Laminae from western habitats also had relatively high stomatal frequency, and stomatal apertures of laminae west of 91 °W were particularly narrow. Longitude did not affect specific weight and thickness of laminae, which averaged 5.5 mg·cm-2 and 90 μm, respectively. Principal component analysis of laminar traits showed existence of two clusters. A large group dominated by data from trees in New England also contained data from trees as far west as ≈93 °W longitude; data for trees further west were clustered separately. Although phenotypic continua were defined, laminae west of 93 °W were distinct, which suggests trees selected there may function differently in managed landscapes than trees selected from native populations further east.
Grant T. Kirker, Blair J. Sampson, Cecil T. Pounders, James M. Spiers, and David W. Boyd Jr
nymphs hatch in early spring. Adults, appearing black and spiny with netted wings ( Schultz and Shetlar, 1994 ), feed on the underside of leaves through the upper palisade parenchyma of stomates causing significant leaf chlorosis. Chlorosis appears as
Lauren E. Kurtz, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand
with 3n chromosomes. Fig. 2. Flow cytometric histograms representing hemp plants with ( A ) a diploid (2n) profile, ( B ) a triploid (3n) profile, and ( C ) a tetraploid (4n) profile. FL2-A = relative fluorescence of total DNA. Stomate length and width
Farida Safadi and Harrison Hughes
Detached and intact leaves (first fully expanded leaf from the top) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.) plantlets hardened in vitro with 2.0% polyethylene glycol (PEG) showed increased diffusive resistance (r) over those of nonhardened plantlets as measured by a steady state porometer. The leaves of the PEG hardened plants maintained a higher resistance throughout the one hour dessication period in approximately 30% relative humidity although both treatments showed an increase in diffusive resistance after 30 minutes. This indicates that the stomates are functioning in the in vitro tobacco plantlets. The higher (r) in the PEG treated plants may be due to more complete closure of stomates, higher cuticle wax content or a combination of both.
Margaret J. McMahon and John W. Kelly
`Spears' chrysanthemums were grown in chambers fitted with double-walled exolite filled with spectral filtering solutions: a blue textile dye that absorbed red light, CuSO4·5H2O that absorbed far-red light, and H2O that was spectrally non-selective (control).
Leaves of `Spears' grown under CuSO4-filters had increased chlorophyll a (23%), chlorophyll b (26%), xanthophyll (22%), and β-carotene (24%) compared to plants grown under H2O or blue-dye filters. Ratios of total carotenoid: chlorophyll and chlorophyll a: chlorophyll b were not affected by filter.
Individual leaf area was reduced 25% under CuSO4 filters compared to other filters. Stomates per unit area were not affected by filters, however stomates per leaf were reduced 25% under CuSO4 filters because of leaf size reduction. Stomate length and width were not affected by filter. Leaves from plants grown under CuSO4-filters had an internal structure resembling that of sun-type leaves. Other filters induced a shade-type leaf.
Perry E. Nugent and Dennis T. Ray
Since 1968, three spontaneous 4× melons (Cucumis melo L.) plants were discovered in our field or greenhouse plantings. Two were found in the cultivar Planters Jumbo and one in the virescent marker C879-52. Each of these 4× plants had rounded cotyledons, shorter internodes, thicker stems and leaves, more hairs, and smaller fruits, with larger stem and blossom scars, than their 2× counterparts. Also, their flowers, pollen grains, stomates, and seeds were larger. The discovery of a 4× virescent plant in 1987 allows easier germplasm transfer between ploidy levels. Morphological characteristics of 2× and 4× melons will allow identification without need for chromosome counts.
Susan S. Han
Leaf yellowing of excised Easter lily leaves was significantly delayed by application of gibberellic acids ≥250 mg·liter-1 or benzyladenine ≥50 mg·liter-1. Rapid development of foliar chlorosis following cold storage was delayed significantly by applying 500 mg·liter-1 of GA3 or BA before storage. Poststorage treatments were less effective. Development of chlorosis was associated with rapid loss of fresh weight and was not related to the aperture of the stomates (diffusive resistance). Respiration rates of leaves treated with growth regulators were significantly lower than those of the controls.'
Rolston St. Hilaire and William R. Graves
Differences in foliar morphology and anatomy of hard maples (Acer saccharum Marsh. and Acer nigrum Michx. f.) may explain contrasting responses to moisture stress of these species. We conducted a 2-year study to examine leaf morphology and anatomy of populations of hard maples indigenous near the 43°N latitude from 94°W longitude in Iowa to the 71°W longitude in Maine. Leaves were collected from shoots exposed to direct solar radiation on multiple trees at each of 24 sites in 1995, and at 36 sites in 1996. Samples collected in 1995 showed stomate frequency on the abaxial leaf surface ranged from 380 to 760 stomata/mm2. Mean guard cell pair width and length were 16 and 17 μm, respectively. Stomate frequency related quadratically to longitude, was greatest for leaves from Iowa, and was negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation of the sample site. Leaf thickness did not vary with longitude and averaged 96 μm. Palisade thickness showed a greater correlation than mesophyll thickness to total leaf thickness. Mesophyll thickness was more highly correlated than palisade thickness to specific leaf mass, which did not vary with longitude and averaged 5.2 mg·cm–2. Analysis of leaves collected over both years showed trichome frequency and lamina area were related quadratically to longitude; the largest and most pubescent laminae were from westerly sites. These studies are being coordinated with greenhouse experiments on responses of seedlings from selected populations to moisture deficits.
I. Schechter, J.T.A. Proctor, and D.C. Elfving
Leaf characteristics of mature `Sturdeespur Delicious'/MM.106 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were studied in two experiments. In 1989 canopy foliage on fruiting trees was divided into shoot leaves, leaves on nonfruiting spurs, and leaves on fruiting spurs. Shoot leaves were the heaviest, the largest, and contained the highest internal gas volume and chlorophyll content. The two spur-leaf types differed in their leaf characteristics except for stomate density. In 1990 shoot and spur leaves on nonfruiting spurs on fruiting trees had lower leaf water content than those leaves on nonfruiting trees. All other shoot-leaf characteristics were similar. Leaves on nonfruiting spurs on nonfruiting trees were larger than those on fruiting trees.