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David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke

) compared the establishment rate and stolon growth characteristics of five Z. japonica lines, ‘Emerald’, and a Z. matrella cultivar in Maryland. When planted as 5-cm diameter plugs on 30-cm centers, ‘Midwest’, a Z. japonica , and Bel-Zrt-1, an

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David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke

zoysiagrass cultivars ( Patton et al., 2007 ) indicated that there is significant variability in stolon production, elongation, and rate of coverage among genotypes in full sun. We hypothesized that ‘Emerald’ × Z. japonica or reciprocal crosses of Z

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Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun, and Li Liu

( Bing et al., 2008 ; Miao et al., 2015 ). The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and has unique morphology. It is similar to a rhizome in appearance, but it has no visible node, internode, or adventitious roots (ARs

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Xiaonan Shi, Ricardo Hernández, and Mark Hoffmann

Cultivated strawberry plants ( Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) reproduce sexually (flower/fruit) and asexually. Asexual reproduction takes place through the generation of aerial stolons (runners), which contain daughter plants on every other node

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Maurizio Giolo, Stefano Macolino, Erica Barolo, and Filippo Rimi

). Bermudagrass survives the dormancy period using reserves accumulated during the previous growing season in storage organs such as stolons and rhizomes. The main reserves of turfgrasses include nonstructural carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds ( Graber et al

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Marco Volterrani, Simone Magni, Monica Gaetani, and Filippo Lulli

vertical growth, the effects of TE application on bermudagrass stolon growth have been documented. In a field trial carried out by Fagerness and Yelverton (1998) , they described a decreased stolon length in TE-treated bermudagrass stands, with stolon

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Antonio Pompeiano, Nicola Grossi, and Marco Volterrani

genotypes, growth analysis has evidenced that high stolon growth rate of quick-establishing genotypes is due to a higher proportion of dry weight partitioned to stems instead of leaves ( Patton et al., 2007 ). Another limiting factor is winter dormancy, a

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Marco Volterrani, Nicola Grossi, Monica Gaetani, Lisa Caturegli, Aimila-Eleni Nikolopoulou, Filippo Lulli, and Simone Magni

growth or seed head formation while preserving stolon growth ( McCarty, 2011 ). Volterrani et al. (2012) reported a significant reduction of stolon length when TE was applied on ‘Patriot’ hybrid bermudagrass over the labeled rate. The available data on

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Stefano Macolino, Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, and Umberto Ziliotto

with TNC content ( Fry et al., 1991 ; Maier et al., 1994 ). Rhizomes and stolons are the principal locations of carbohydrate storage in well-established bermudagrass ( Dunn and Nelson, 1974 ). In comparing the relative importance of the two organs

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F.P. Maier, N.S. Lang, and J.D. Fry

Little is known about intraspecific variability in St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] freezing tolerance and the physiological factors that may influence survival. Stolons of field-grown `Raleigh', `Floratam', and FX-332 St. Augustinegrass were sampled between October and March in 1990 to 1991 and 1991 to 1992 to measure freezing tolerance, nonstructural carbohydrates, and water content. Stolons were exposed to temperatures between 1 and -8C in a freezer, and regrowth was evaluated in the greenhouse. Generally, freezing tolerance of `Raleigh' > `Floratam' = FX-332. `Raleigh' exhibited >60% survival in December and January, while survival of `Floratam' and FX-332 was <20%. `Raleigh' was the only cultivar that acclimated, as indicated by a 75% increase in survival between October and December 1990. Starch and sucrose were the primary storage carbohydrates extracted from stolons, but neither was correlated with freezing tolerance. A negative (r = -0.80) correlation was observed between `Raleigh' survival and stolon water content between January and March 1991. Reduced water content in `Raleigh' stolons during winter months may contribute to acclimation.