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Stefano Macolino, Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, and Umberto Ziliotto

with TNC content ( Fry et al., 1991 ; Maier et al., 1994 ). Rhizomes and stolons are the principal locations of carbohydrate storage in well-established bermudagrass ( Dunn and Nelson, 1974 ). In comparing the relative importance of the two organs

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David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke

) compared the establishment rate and stolon growth characteristics of five Z. japonica lines, ‘Emerald’, and a Z. matrella cultivar in Maryland. When planted as 5-cm diameter plugs on 30-cm centers, ‘Midwest’, a Z. japonica , and Bel-Zrt-1, an

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David O. Okeyo, Jack D. Fry, Dale J. Bremer, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi, and Milton C. Engelke

zoysiagrass cultivars ( Patton et al., 2007 ) indicated that there is significant variability in stolon production, elongation, and rate of coverage among genotypes in full sun. We hypothesized that ‘Emerald’ × Z. japonica or reciprocal crosses of Z

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Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun, and Li Liu

( Bing et al., 2008 ; Miao et al., 2015 ). The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and has unique morphology. It is similar to a rhizome in appearance, but it has no visible node, internode, or adventitious roots (ARs

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Maurizio Giolo, Stefano Macolino, Erica Barolo, and Filippo Rimi

). Bermudagrass survives the dormancy period using reserves accumulated during the previous growing season in storage organs such as stolons and rhizomes. The main reserves of turfgrasses include nonstructural carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds ( Graber et al

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Marco Volterrani, Simone Magni, Monica Gaetani, and Filippo Lulli

vertical growth, the effects of TE application on bermudagrass stolon growth have been documented. In a field trial carried out by Fagerness and Yelverton (1998) , they described a decreased stolon length in TE-treated bermudagrass stands, with stolon

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Antonio Pompeiano, Nicola Grossi, and Marco Volterrani

genotypes, growth analysis has evidenced that high stolon growth rate of quick-establishing genotypes is due to a higher proportion of dry weight partitioned to stems instead of leaves ( Patton et al., 2007 ). Another limiting factor is winter dormancy, a

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Marco Volterrani, Nicola Grossi, Monica Gaetani, Lisa Caturegli, Aimila-Eleni Nikolopoulou, Filippo Lulli, and Simone Magni

growth or seed head formation while preserving stolon growth ( McCarty, 2011 ). Volterrani et al. (2012) reported a significant reduction of stolon length when TE was applied on ‘Patriot’ hybrid bermudagrass over the labeled rate. The available data on

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F.P. Maier, N.S. Lang, and J.D. Fry

Little is known about intraspecific variability in St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] freezing tolerance and the physiological factors that may influence survival. Stolons of field-grown `Raleigh', `Floratam', and FX-332 St. Augustinegrass were sampled between October and March in 1990 to 1991 and 1991 to 1992 to measure freezing tolerance, nonstructural carbohydrates, and water content. Stolons were exposed to temperatures between 1 and -8C in a freezer, and regrowth was evaluated in the greenhouse. Generally, freezing tolerance of `Raleigh' > `Floratam' = FX-332. `Raleigh' exhibited >60% survival in December and January, while survival of `Floratam' and FX-332 was <20%. `Raleigh' was the only cultivar that acclimated, as indicated by a 75% increase in survival between October and December 1990. Starch and sucrose were the primary storage carbohydrates extracted from stolons, but neither was correlated with freezing tolerance. A negative (r = -0.80) correlation was observed between `Raleigh' survival and stolon water content between January and March 1991. Reduced water content in `Raleigh' stolons during winter months may contribute to acclimation.

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Kirk D. Larson

Replant soil fumigation with mixtures of methyl bromide (MeBr) and chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) is a standard practice for pest and disease control in fruit crop nurseries in California. The proposed phase-out of MeBr by the year 2001 requires that alternative soil sterilants be studied for nursery use. Therefore, on 5 April, 1993, three preplant soil treatments were applied to new strawberry ground: 1) MeBr/chloropicrin (67:33) at 392 kg/ha: 2) chloropicrin, a possible MeBr substitute. at 140 kg/ha: and 3) nonfumigation. The experimental design was a RCB: there were two plots (each 10′ × 15′) for each of two cultivars (`Chandler' and `Selva') for the 3 soil treatments in each of 3 blocks. Mother plants were planted 26 April, and plots were machine-harvested in October, 1993. All plants from each plot were uniformly graded, after which mean stolon yield per mother plant, mean crown diameters, and crown and root dry wts were determined. Cultivar effects and cultivar × treatment interactions were not observed, so data for the two cultivars were pooled. Stolon production per mother plant was greatest for trt 1 (18.56 stolons), intermediate for trt 2 (15.75 stolons), and least form 3 (7.89 stolons). For trt 3, crown dieters. and crown and root dry wts were reduced relative to those of trts 1 or 2. Stolons from all trts were planted in a fruit production field on 13 October, 1993. After two months, canopy diameters were greatest for plants from trt 1 (27.1 cm), intermediate for plants from trt 2 (26.2 cm) and least for plants from trt 3 (24.9 cm). The results indicate that, compared to standard soil fumigation with MeBr/chloropicrin. small, but significant, reductions in runner production and plant vigor can be expected following nursery soil fumigation with intermediate rates of chloropicrin.