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Robert L. Mikkelsen

greenhouse gases and water quality targets. The 4Rs The 4R nutrient stewardship framework is based on universal scientific principles that can serve to guide the selection of management practices that support the goals of sustainable development ( Fig. 1

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Kathryn Karsh, Edward Bush, Janice Hinson, and Pamela Blanchard

elementary through high school students and fosters stewardship for the state's coastal resources. Coastal Roots combines nursery management and coastal environmental awareness into a hands-on program. Participating schools grow coastal plants for local

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Christine E.H. Coker, Gary Bachman, Chris Boyd, Pamela B. Blanchard, Ed Bush, and Mengmeng Gu

The Louisiana State University (LSU) Coastal Roots School Seedling Nursery Program for Habitat Restoration (Coastal Roots) was initiated in Jan. 2000 to assist students in Louisiana in developing an attitude of stewardship toward Louisiana's coastal

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Mark Gaskell and Tim Hartz

level. Suggestions for future improvement Improved nutrient stewardship will be required to meet the challenges of increasing horticultural crop production to accommodate an expanding population while safeguarding soil, air, and water resources

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David R. Bryla

The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced by Bruulsema et al. (2009) to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but also to provide desirable

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Neil S. Mattson and Marc W. van Iersel

plants Plant Soil 193 85 101 Bryla, D.R. 2011 Application of the “4R” nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: Getting nutrients in the “right” place HortTechnology 21 674 682 Bugbee, B. 1995 Nutrient management in recirculating hydroponic

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William T. Hlubik and Richard B. Weidman

In 1993, a modification of the Master Gardener volunteer program was created to focus on ecological principles for environmentally sound gardening. The new program is called the Master Gardener-Environmental and Community Stewardship (MGECS) program and addresses important environmental concerns in Middlesex County, N.J. Program participants receive more than 100 hours of training in horticultural and ecological principles and are required to share their knowledge with others through volunteer activities monitored by cooperative extension staff. Volunteers encourage home comporting, recycling of grass clippings, proper fertilization techniques, and least-toxic pest control in the home landscape and garden. Trained volunteers have helped more than 16,000 people during the past 2 years through lectures, demonstrations, telephone contacts, and newspaper articles. Since the MGECS program began in 1993, the number of volunteer hours per person during the first year has increased by 30% compared to the traditional Master Gardener program offered from 1989 to 1992. This new program is an effective model to encourage practical environmental stewardship through community volunteer action.

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Clinton C. Shock and Feng-Xin Wang

A fundamental way to schedule irrigation is through the monitoring and management of soil water tension (SWT). Soil water tension is the force necessary for plant roots to extract water from the soil. With the invention of tensiometers, SWT measurements have been used to schedule irrigation. There are different types of field instruments used to measure SWT, either directly or indirectly. Precise irrigation scheduling by SWT criteria is a powerful method to optimize plant performance. Specific SWT criteria for irrigation scheduling have been developed to optimize the production and quality of vegetable crops, field crops, trees, shrubs, and nursery crops. This review discusses known SWT criteria for irrigation scheduling that vary from 2 to 800 kPa depending on the crop species, plant product to be optimized, environmental conditions, and irrigation system. By using the ideal SWT and adjusting irrigation duration and amount, it is possible to simultaneously achieve high productivity and meet environmental stewardship goals for water use and reduced leaching.

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Kathryn Fontenot, Edward Bush, and Rebecca Gravois

al., 2009 ; Klemmer et al., 2005 ; Smith and Motsenbocker, 2005 ) studied student knowledge, environmental stewardship and confidence in science-based skills. These studies found positive correlations between garden participation and increased