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Katrina J.M. Hodgson-Kratky and David J. Wolyn

an economically viable crop requires improvement of many traits, such as rubber yield and plant vigor. Male sterility is characterized by a lack of functional pollen and has been identified in over 600 species including many agriculturally important

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John M. Ruter

using gamma irradiation has been used to develop a number of ornamental cultivars ( Shu et al., 2012 ). Traits that can be influenced by mutation breeding include time of flowering and fruit ripening, pollen abortion and sterility, improved disease and

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Huan Xiong, Ping Chen, Zhoujun Zhu, Ya Chen, Feng Zou and Deyi Yuan

C. oleifera , and although C. oleifera is a crosspollinated plant with strong heterosis in the F 1 generation ( Han et al., 2015 ), crossbreeding requires labor-intensive emasculation in the field. In general, male sterility is a much sought

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Soon O. Park, Hye Y. Hwang and Kevin M. Crosby

) markers linked to the ms-3 locus for male sterility by means of bulked segregant analysis in an ms-3 × ‘TAM Dulce’ F 2 population. Eleven RAPD and andromonoecious ( a ) markers associated with muskmelon QTL for sugars were detected ( Sinclair et al

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Jaemin Lee and Lowell C. Ewart

Most seed produced impatiens today are F1 hybrids. The seed of F1 hybrids is produced by hand-emasculation of the seed parent or the use of some types of male sterility system. The male sterility systems used in impatiens breeding have never been reported, and is proprietary information of seed companies. The objective of this study was to investigate the types of male sterility involved in impatiens. Eighteen inbreds and 14 hybrids were investigated. One sterile inbred line was selected and crossed with several inbred fertile lines for inheritance analysis. The F1 progenies were all fertile, and backcrossed to the sterile parent. The F2 and backcross populations indicate that the inheritance is controlled by a single recessive ms gene. Information concerning with a possibility of cytoplasmic-nuclear gene interaction will be discussed.

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Cecil Pounders, Tim Rinehart and Hamidou Sakhanokho

a hybrid between L. indica × L. speciosa . Sterility may be an asset if superior clones can be selected from the F 1 population, because it would prevent the possibility of the plants becoming invasive ( Pooler, 2006b ). However, sterility in the

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Huan Xiong, Feng Zou, Sujuan Guo, Deyi Yuan and Genhua Niu

. Self-sterility is a common reproductive phenomenon in plants. It describes the reduction in seed set following selfing relative to that following outcrossing and is widely distributed among flowering plants ( Mahy and Jacquemart, 1999 ). Self-sterility

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Rhiannon L. Wilson and William A. Hoch

, seed collected from commercial nurseries were tested, and plants demonstrating sterility in the test plot were pollinated under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. The DNA content of all clones was determined using flow cytometry. Materials and

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D.A. Dierig, P.M. Tomasi and T.A. Coffelt

Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats., Brassicaceae, is a potential oilseed crop native to the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxy fatty acids, similar to castor. Unique properties of the oil, along with coproducts, allow additional applications that would not be in competition with castor. Plants with vestigial anthers were discovered in a bulk population growing in the greenhouse in 1993. The inheritance of the trait was investigated the following three crop seasons. Crosses were made among sterile and fertile plants and reciprocals among fertile plants. Chi-square results indicate the male sterility trait is expressed by a recessive nuclear gene with cytoplasmic influence restoring fertility. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines can be utilized for development of hybrids. Development of lines without male sterility should lead to higher yields than current bulk populations of lesquerella. Hybrid plants and higher yields will enhance the commercialization potential of this new, alternative crop.

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Alan Smith, Nicole Gardner and Elizabeth S. Zimmermann

Female sterility is desirable in horticultural crops for many reasons, including decreasing invasiveness and weediness, reducing nuisance fruit production, promoting vegetative growth, and increasing flower longevity and number. This study tested a method of creating female sterility through genetic transformation of plants with a gene that ablates tissue necessary for female fertility and reproduction. A gene construct was created containing barnase, a cytotoxic RNAse, expressed with a transmitting tract specific promoter from the tobacco gene sP41. The sP41gene encodes a (1,3)-β-glucanase in the transmitting tract of the pistil of mature tobacco flowers. The construct also expressed barstar, a barnase inhibitor, driven by the CaMV 35S promoter to protect other plant tissues from unexpected barnase expression. Seed set data taken after controlled pollinations showed tobacco plants transformed with this construct had greatly reduced fertility in young flowers and female sterility in mature flowers relative to nontransformed controls. Light microscopy showed ablation of the transmitting tract tissue in transformed plants. The expression of barnase with a transmitting tract specific promoter is an effective way to reduce or eliminate female fertility. Due to the conservation of (1,3)-β-glucanase activity in the styles of other plant species, this construct has potential for producing female-sterile cultivars of other horticultural crops.