flower bulbs as it is composed of the basal root system and the stem root system. The fleshy basal roots grow at the basal plate under the bulb, while after the shoot has emerged from the soil and grown to a certain height, the stem roots will grow as
Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, and Richard L. Harkess
and grown in plastic containers had the greatest N concentration (in stems, roots, and averaged in the plant)—greater than those grown in biocontainers fertilized with 15 m m N or those receiving no N grown in either container type, with no difference
Hameed Jasim Aljuburi
The study was carried out at the Experimental Station of Agric. Sci. College at Al-oha region. Eight hundred seedlings (7 months old) were chosen for each following cultivars, Lulu, Boman, Barhee and Khalas. The seedings for each cultivars were irrigated weekly with 0, 6, 12, 18 g I.-1 Nacl solution.
The results revealed fresh weight of stems, roots and number of leaves/plant of Lulul, Barhee and Khalas cultivars progressively reduced with increasing Nacl concentration in irrigation water, while dry matter percentage of stems and roots increased and increasing salinity in irrigation water. The results also declared that the seedlings of four date palm cultivars has similar behavior, when exposed to high Nacl concentration in irrigation water during long term.
Rawia El-Motaium and Patrick H. Brown
Boron toxicity is a wide spread problem especially in arid and semiarid areas of the world. Boron toxicity can result in yield loss of many crop plants, especially stone fruits which are sensitive to high boron concentration. This study was designed to follow the effect of Ca+2 supplementation on partitioning of B at the plant organ level (leaves, stem, roots) and the subcellular level (the cell wall) using the stable isotope 10B.
Results demonstrate that calcium supplementation reduced B accumulation in plum and peach leaves by 31% at the low level (0.25 mM) and by 12% at the high B level (0.50 mM). Results indicate an effect of Ca on the uptake and distribution of 10B between plant organs.
Symptoms of B toxicity in peach (Lovell) include stem die back, necrotic brown spots on the stem and gum formation on the nodes, whereas in plum (Mariana), stem die back and gum formation, as droplets, on the lower leave's surface were the main symptoms.
The science of botany is often daunting to people who are training to become Master Gardener volunteers. However, the range of natural diversity of plants as well as practical information about plant anatomy are essential foundations for other parts of Master Gardener training. I will present a botany module that I have developed over the past 5 years. The module focuses on relevance to the trainee and builds on basic information to examine more complex aspects of botany, all in the space of the 3–6 hours often allotted for basic botany training. It begins with a “tour” of the plant kingdom and plant relatives like algae and fungi, mosses, liverworts, and ferns. I follow this with basic morphology of stems, roots, and leaves; this basic morphology is used to answer the question of how water and minerals move from the soil into and throughout plants, even reaching the height of the tallest tree. A short segment on mycorhizzae reinforces water and mineral transport, while providing a link to the plant kingdom tour. The mycorhizzal section also reinforces or complements training on soils, which is often presented in another portion of the training schedule. Finally, a segment on flowers introduces basic terminology and winds up a discussion of how to recognize monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Several optional hands-on activities help active learners assimilate the information and provide needed reflective time for more traditional learners. The module has been adopted as the official OSU Extension Master Gardener™ Program botany module in Oregon.
Jose R.A. Santos and Daniel I. Leskovar
Poor seedling emergence and stunted growth were observed in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group) crops when planted after three consecutive monocrops of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group). This study was conducted to assess seed, seedling, and plant growth responses of broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower to broccoli residue (leaves, stem + roots, and whole plant) extracts, broccoli residue incorporation, or soil previously cropped to broccoli. Osmotic potential, electrical conductivity, and pH of extracts were measured, rate (T50) and total germination were determined. Filter-sterilized leaf extract delayed T50(7.5 d) and reduced total germination (22%) of cauliflower compared to broccoli or cabbage. Similarly, plant height, shoot dry weight, and leaf area of cauliflower were significantly reduced when grown on broccoli soil in the greenhouse. Cabbage and cauliflower had low total marketable yields with more culled heads when grown in the field previously cropped to broccoli. Therefore, a potential growth inhibition of cabbage and cauliflower exists when following a continous cropping of broccoli.
Hadi Susilo and Yao-Chien Alex Chang
values of the second and seventh leaves from the apex were measured for all plants with a chlorophyll meter (SPAD502; Minolta, Tokyo, Japan). Seven plants from each treatment were harvested, divided into newly grown leaves, mature leaves, stem, roots, and
Theocharis Chatzistathis, Ioannis Therios, and Dimitrios Alifragis
parameters. Once the plants were harvested (at the 140th day), shoot length as well as fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems, roots, and total plant fresh and dry weights were measured. Samples were initially weighed (fresh weight), then washed with tap and
Rui Wang, Yuqing Gui, Tiejun Zhao, Masahisa Ishii, Masatake Eguchi, Hui Xu, Tianlai Li, and Yasunaga Iwasaki
source–sink balance regulates sugar mobilization, which is involved in the formation of number and morphology characteristics of sink organs such as leaves, stems, roots, and flowers ( Dileman and Heuvelink, 1992 ; NeSmith, 1997; Sezgin et al., 2006
Yun-Im Kang, Hyang Young Joung, Dae Hoe Goo, Youn Jung Choi, Mok Pil Choi, Hye Ryun An, Jae-Young Ko, Kang-Joon Choi, Ki Hwan Lee, and Kye Wan Hong
transpiration rate and water uptake rate, which is caused by weak development of stem roots and excessive growth of aboveground parts ( Choi et al., 2004 ). In addition, calcium deficiency and fluoride toxicity can cause leaf scorch ( Chang and Miller, 2005