We compared transpiration estimates of three common desert landscape tree species using stem-flow gauges and lysimetry. Argentine mesquite (Prosopis alba Grisebach), desert willow [Chilopsis linearis (cav.) Sweet var. linearis], and southern live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill., seedling selection) were subjected to three irrigation regimes. Leaching fractions of +0.25, 0.00, and -0.25 were imposed for 2 years. During the summer of the second year, we conducted a comparative transpiration study. Trees growing in 190-liter plastic containers had a highly linear correlation (r = 0.98, P = 0.001) between transpiration estimated by stem-flow gauges and lysimetry. An average 18% error was measured between paired data (total runs of 14 to 72.5 hours) of stem-flow gauge and lysimetry transpiration estimates. However, a lower error was correlated significantly with longer run times (r = -0.37, P = 0.05). Based on field measurements taken in this experiment, run times would have to be >68 hours to maintain an associated error below 10%. Higher cumulative transpiration also was associated with longer run times (r = 0.80, P = 0.001). These results suggest that the stem-flow gauge can be used to estimate transpiration accurately to schedule irrigation for woody ornamental trees in an arid environment, provided that irrigation predictions are not based on short-term stem-flow gauge estimates (<68 hours).
D.A. Devitt, M. Berkowitz, P.J. Schulte, and R.L. Morris
Mark A. Rose, John W. White, and Joel L. Cuello
Recently developed stem flow gauges that allow for direct, accurate, non-invasive, and continuous measurement of plant sap flow rates have not been used to monitor transpiration of floricultural plants grown in greenhouses.
A Dynamax SGA10 heat-balance sap-flow sensor was mounted on a potted rose plant's main stem containing a total leaf area of 0.52 m in order to monitor transpiration. The sensor was connected to a CR21X Micrologger for data calculation and temporary storage. The results showed average midday sap-flow rates range from 20-30 g·hr-1 to 50-70 g·hr-1 at low and high levels of PPF, respectively. Nighttime levels of 4-7 g·hr-1 persisted throughout early winter trials. Monitoring transpiration of the same rose stem using a lysimeter revealed a significant linear correlation (r2 = 0.999) between the lysimeter and the stem flow gauge values.
In the future, research will be conducted with the gauge to investigate relationships between microclimatic variables, photosynthesis, and transpiration.
Jayne M. Zajicek and J.L. Heilman
A study was conducted to explore how surface materials, including pine bark mulch, bare soil, and turfgrass, affect water use of diverse cultivars (dwarf weeping, dwarf upright, standard weeping, and standard upright) of crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.). Daily water use was measured gravimetrically, and instantaneous rates of sap flow were measured using heat balance stem flow gauges. Plants of all cultivars surrounded by the mulched surface lost 0.63 to 1.25 kg·m-2·day-1 more water than plants on the soil surface and 0.83 to 1.09 kg·m-2·day-1 more than plants surrounded by turf. The surface temperature of the mulch was higher than that of the other surfaces, resulting in greater fluxes of longwave radiation from the surface. Because of the greater energy load, plants on the mulched surface had higher leaf temperatures and higher leaf-air vapor pressure deficits (VPD) throughout the day. Plants on the mulched area also had higher stomata1 conductances during most of the day compared with those on bare soil and turfgrass surfaces.
Susan L. Steinberg, Jayne M. Zajicek, and Marshall J. McFarland
Growth of potted Ligustrum was controlled by uniconazole at 3.0 mg a.i./pot. Uniconazole inhibited growth by inducing shorter internodes with smaller diameter and by reducing secondary branching and new leaf production. As a result, the total leaf area of the treated plants was 6396 less than the control plants. The chlorophyll content of recently expanded leaves was 27% lower in treated than in control plants, even though there were no visual differences in leaf color. Leaves of treated plants also had a 28% higher stomatal density than the control. The liquid flow conductance of Ligustrum was 3.7 × 10-14 m·s-1·Pa-1 and was similar for plants in both treatments. Differences in daily water, use between the two treatments began to appear at the same time as differences in growth. Total water use of treated plants was 13% less than that of the control. When daily water use was normalized on a-leaf-area basis, water use between treatments was similar, suggesting that differences in total water use were primarily due to differences in leaf area. For plants in both treatments, peak sap flow rates in the main trunk ranged between 60 and 100 g·h-1·m-2. Leaf conductance, transpiration rates, and water potential were also similar for treated and control plants. Chemical name used: (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyll) -4,4, -dimethyl-2-(l,2,4-triazo1-l-y1)-l-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).
Susan L. Steinberg, Jayne M. Zajicek, and Marshall J. McFarland
Growth of potted hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) was limited either by pruning or by a soil drench of `uniconazole at 3.0 mg a.i. per pot. Both treatments changed the water use of hibiscus. Five days after treatment with uniconazole, plants showed reduced water use, an effect that became more pronounced with time. Water use of pruned plants was reduced immediately after pruning, but soon returned to the level of the control due to the rapid regeneration of leaf area. Pruned or chemically treated plants used 6% and 33% less water, respectively, than the control. Chemically treated plants had a smaller leaf area, and individual leaves had lower stomatal density, conductance, and transpiration rate than control plants. Under well-watered conditions, the sap flow rate in the main trunk of control or pruned plants was 120 to 160 g·h-1·m-2, nearly three times higher than the 40 to 70 g·h-1·m-2 measured in chemically treated plants. Liquid flow conductance through the main trunk or stem was slightly higher in chemically treated plants due to higher values of leaf water potential for a given sap flow rate. The capacitance per unit volume of individual leaves appeared to be lower in chemically treated than in control plants. There was also a trend toward lower water-use efficiency in uniconazole-treated plants. Chemical name used: (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).
Jayne M. Zajicek, Nowell J. Adams, and Shelley A. McReynolds
Landscape plantings have been designed traditionally using aesthetic criteria with minimal consideration given to water requirements. The primary objective of this research was to develop quantitative information on water use of plant communities conventionally used in urban landscapes. Pots of Photinia × Fraseri (photinia Fraseri), Lagerstroemia indica 'Carolina Beauty' (crape myrtle), or Ligustrum japonicum (wax leaf ligustrum) were transplanted from 3.8 l into 75.7 l pots with either Stenotaphrum secundatum 'Texas Common' (St. Augustinegrass), Cynodon dactylon × C. transvallensis 'Tiffway' (bermudagrass), Trachelospermum asiaticum (Asiatic jasmine), or left with bare soil. Whole community water use was measured gravimetrically. In addition, sap flow rates were recorded for shrub species with stem flow gauges. Sap flow measurements were correlated to whole community water use recorded during the same time intervals. Whole community water use differed due to the groundcover component; bermudagrass, Asiatic jasmine, and bare soil communities used less water than St. Augustinegrass communities. Differences were also noted in stomatal conductance and leaf water potential among the species.
Greg Litus and James Klett
During Summer 2005, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica `Patmore') trees planted at the Colorado State University Agricultural Research Development and Education Center in 1996 were exposed to simulated drought by restricting irrigation for 33 to 41 days. During this period, predawn leaf water potentials in drought-stressed trees progressively dropped to a low of –2.04 MPa, while the control plot was maintained with full irrigation such that predawn leaf water potentials did not fall below –0.5 MPa. On 24 Aug. 2005, 31 days into this drought cycle, mid-day leaf water potentials and stomatal conductance were measured at –3.0 MPa and 22.63 mmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. Measurements in control trees collected at about the same time were –2.0 MPa and 169 mmol·m-2·s-1. The dramatic reduction in stomatal conductance in the drought-stressed trees began at about 10:30 a.m. and continued into the evening. Once irrigation was resumed, drought stressed trees rebounded from depressed predawn leaf water potentials and mid-day leaf water potentials and stomatal conductance and reached levels similar to control trees in 2 to 5 days. Stem flow gauges indicate that, during this period, fully hydrated control trees used about 250 liters/day.
Shelley A. McReynolds, J.M. Zajicek, W.A. Mackay, and J. L. Heilman
A study was conducted to explore how different mulches affect water use of landscape plants. Plots 4.9 m × 7.3 m, were covered with 5cm pine bark, cypress, white rock, or clay aggregate. 3 potted plants of Ligustrum japonicum (wax-leaf ligustrum) and Photinia × fraseri (red tip photinia) were placed in each plot so that the top of each pot was at ground level. 1 plant of each species was planted directly into each plot. Water loss was measured on a daily basis, both gravimetrically and using heat balance stem flow gauges, during both the 1992 and 1993 growing seasons. Stomatal conductance was measured periodically during each growing season. Surface, air, and soil temperatures at two depths were recorded. During 1992, pine bark mulched plants consistently used more water than the other treatments, as opposed to summer 1993 when the most water was used by plants over white rock. Surface temperatures of pine bark, cypress and clay aggregates were higher than those of white rock both years, by as much as 20C, while temperatures under the mulch varied as much as 5C between pine bark and white rock.
Christopher B. Kindred and J.M. Zajicek
Survivability of ornamental landscape plants during transport and the early stages of transplanting is a concern of the nursery and landscape industries. An effective antitranspirant may help avoid unnecessary plant losses during these periods of plant stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new experimental antitranspirant on whole-plant transpiration of two ornamental landscape shrubs. Plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Photinia ×fraseri were treated with the experimental antitranspirant N2001. Treatment rates included: 0% (as a control), 10%, 12.5%, or 15%. All treatments were mixed as a percentage of N2001 in a given volume of reverse osmosis water and applied to the roots as a drench. Whole-plant transpiration was determined gravimetrically by weighing the plants daily. Stem-flow gauges further monitored daily water use on an hourly basis. At the termination of the experiment, leaf areas and leaf dry weights were determined. Application of the antitranspirant reduced whole-plant transpiration immediately for all treated plants compared to that of control plants. On day 1, the 10%, 12.5%, and 15% treatments significantly reduced whole-plant transpiration levels by 41%, 50%, and 62%, respectively, compared to untreated plants. On day 3 and 4, the antitranspirant was still effective, reducing whole-plant transpiration by 47% and 24% on average, respectively, compared to untreated plants. By day five there were no significant differences in whole-plant transpiration between any treatment. Differences in whole plant transpiration can be attributed to antitranspirant application due to lack of differences in leaf area, dry weight or leaf area ratio between any treatment.
Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, S. Christopher Marble, Hugo H. Rogers, Charles H. Gilliam, and H. Allen Torbert
; Pallas, 1965 ; Prior et al., 1991 ; Valle et al., 1985 ) and C 4 ( Chaudhuri et al., 1986 ; Pallas, 1965 ; Van Bavel, 1974 ) plants. Dugas et al. (1997) , using stem flow gauges under actual field conditions, also showed that whole