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Chen-Yen Chang and Ping-Kun Chen

The purpose of this paper was to report the effects of window views and indoor plants on human psychophysiological response in workplace environments. The effects of window views and indoor plants were recorded by measuring participant's electromyography (EMG), electroencephalography (EEG), blood volume pulse (BVP), and stateanxiety. Photo Impact 5.0 was used to simulate the environment in an office, where six conditions were examined: 1) window with a view of a city, 2) window with a view of a city and indoor plants, 3) window with a view of nature, 4) window with a view of nature and indoor plants, 5) office without a window view, and 6) office without a window view and indoor plants. Participants were less nervous or anxious when watching a view of nature and/or when indoor plants were present. When neither the window view nor the indoor plants were shown, participants suffered the highest degree of tension and anxiety.

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Jennifer DeWolfe, T.M. Waliczek, and J.M. Zajicek

Researchers wonder what it takes to improve athlete performance. Research has suggested that plants reduce anxiety, and reduced anxiety could, in turn, improve athletic performance. Research also shows that plants have psychological and restorative value such as improving coping mechanisms in human subjects as well as the potential to improve concentration and focus attention that could affect performance of athletes. The main objective of this research was to investigate the impact of greenery/landscaping on athletic performance and cognitive and somatic anxiety in track and field athletes. Four university track and field teams and 128 athletes participated in the study. Individual athlete performance and athletes' scores on the competitive state anxiety inventory-2 (CSAI-2) cognitive and somatic anxiety tests were collected from seven track meets that occurred during one spring competition season. Greenness/landscaping level was determined by Likert scale rating averages from professional horticulturists who individually rated each site. A regression analysis found that greenness level was a predictor (P = 0.000) of best performance by athletes. More of the athletes' best performance marks were at the track and field site that had the highest greenery rating, and many of the athletes' worst performance marks were achieved at the site that had the lowest greenery rating. Results also indicated that all athletes performed better at the more vegetated track and field site regardless of event and level of anxiety. All athletes performed similarly at each of the track and field sites regardless of ethnicity, gender, or grade classification. However, the overall average mean anxiety scores for all the athletes involved in this study were somewhat high in comparison with the instrument-normed scores for both the cognitive and somatic anxiety scales.

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Yen-Cheng Chiang and Pei-Yi Weng

efficiency and the ability to cope with the stresses of daily life ( Brewer and McMahan, 2003 ; Kamaldeep et al., 2016 ). Rambo (1984 ) identified anxiety as an emotion triggered in reaction to stress. Spielberger (1966 ) asserted that the state anxiety

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Masahiro Toyoda, Yuko Yokota, Marni Barnes, and Midori Kaneko

types of anxiety: state anxiety and trait anxiety. State anxiety indicates a transient psychological state related to an anxiety-arousing event. Trait anxiety indicates a relatively settled tendency toward anxiety. STAI-Form JYZ consists of two self

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Sin-Ae Park, Chorong Song, Ji-Young Choi, Ki-Cheol Son, and Yoshifumi Miyazaki

measuring electromyography, electroencephalography, blood volume pulse, and state anxiety. The results of this study showed that participants were notably less nervous or anxious when viewing nature or indoor plants. Finally, a review of 21 studies concluded

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Seong-Hyun Park and Richard H. Mattson

. Patients in the plant group had significantly lower anxiety than patients in the control group during the recovery periods ( P = 0.01). Patients in the plant group were characterized by significantly lower levels of state anxiety and tension than patients