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Kathryn M. Kleitz, Marisa M. Wall, Constance L. Falk, Charles A. Martin, Marta D. Remmenga, and Steven J. Guldan

stand establishment of transplants was significantly greater 74% of the time when compared to direct seeding ( Table 1 ). In no case was percentage of stand establishment significantly lower by transplant than by direct seeding. In fact, transplants

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Brian A. Kahn, Niels O. Maness, Donna R. Chrz, and Lynda K. Carrier

. Basil is grown primarily from transplants ( Nurzyńska-Wierdak, 2002 ), but the crop can be established by direct seeding ( Davis, 1997 ; Simon, 1995 ). Producers are interested in direct seeding for basil stand establishment as a possible method to

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Gerald B. Odell, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Herbert H. Bryan, and Peter J. Stoffella

Primed, pregerminated, or nontreated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds were field-sown with several soil amendments to assess stand establishment at high temperatures. Soil amendments did not consistently improve tomato stand establishment. However, covering seeds with a fine-textured calcined montmorillonite clay (Growsorb) resulted in similar or improved total percent emergence, emergence rate, and seedling shoot dry weight as compared to the soil cover (control) for nontreated, primed, or pregerminated seeds. Plug-mix (a peat-vermiculite medium) or gel-mix [a 1:1 mixture (v/v) of plug-mix and gel, starch-acrylate copolymer, or polyacrylate polymer], covered over or mixed with nontreated, primed, or pregerminated seeds, did not consistently improve total percent emergence over the soil cover. However, soil amendments generally resulted in faster emergence than the soil cover. Pregerminated seeds imbibed for 60 or 72 hours at 25C generally resulted in reduced stands compared to primed or nontreated seeds. Moisturized seeds imbibed for 48 hours at 25C had faster emergence and heavier seedling shoots than nontreated seeds, regardless of soil amendment. However, primed seeds generally resulted in faster emergence and more plants with heavier seedling shoot weights than nontreated or pregerminated seeds sown at high temperatures.

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Penelope M. Perkins-Veazie, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and James M. White

Abstract

Seed treatments and soil covers were used to assess stand establishment and uniformity of direct-seeded cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata) under high and low soil temperatures. Generally, primed seeds did not result in increased or more uniform seedling emergence compared to untreated seeds. Germinated seeds sown with a magnesium silicate gel (Laponite) or a starch-acrylamide-acrylate polymer gel (Liquagel) resulted in incomplete stands under heat stress, and stands for all plantings were generally lower when cabbage seeds were sown in a gel than when sown without a gel. Peat-vermiculite (Plug-mix) and calcined clay (GrowSorb) seed covers improved stands regardless of seed treatment when average soil temperatures were ≥30°C. Under normal (25°) to cooler soil conditions stands were not improved by seed treatment or seed cover.

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Lewis W. Jett, Gregory E. Welbaum, Charles R. O'Dell, and Ronald D. Morse

The effect of matric and osmotic seed priming on stand establishment and maturity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) was investigated in three years at two locations in Virginia. Seeds (`Earlidawn') were primed at 1.1 MPa (68F for 7 days) either osmotically in polyethylene glycol (8000 molecular weight) or metrically in vermiculite (horticultural grade no. 2). In the frost year of the study, seeds were hand-seeded in August into crustprone soil with a mean temperature of 82F, and there were no differences in the percentage or mean time of seedling emergence between osmotic- and matric-primed seeds. Under cooler temperatures during the remaining two years of the study, priming increased the percent emergence and decreased the mean time of emergence by about 15 hours. Primed seeds did not increase yields or accelerate maturity in two out of three years. In the third year, the spread of seedling emergence times was less for primed seeds, which reduced plant-to-plant competition and hastened maturity. The primary benefit of primed broccoli seeds was faster emergence, which increased stands by reducing exposure to stresses that decrease emergence.

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Gerald B. Odell, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Herbert H. Bryan, and Peter J. Stoffella

Primed, pregerminated, or nontreated `FloraDade' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds in combination with several soil amendments were evaluated in three experiments for stand establishment characteristics and fresh-market fruit yields. Total percent emergence, seedling shoot weight, and marketable fruit yield were not consistently improved by GrowSorb, gel-mix, plug-mix covers, or mixtures with seeds as compared with a control (soil cover). However, rate of emergence was generally faster for plots containing primed or pregerminated seeds with soil amendments than for plots with a soil cover. Primed or pregerminated seeds emerged faster, and had higher total percent emergence and heavier seedling shoot weights than nontreated seeds, but there was little difference in response between primed and pregerminated seeds. Plants from the primed or pregerminated plots produced earlier (first harvest) marketable fruit than did plants from nontreated seed plots in one of three experiments. Priming or pregermination of tomato seeds resulted in a more consistently improved stand establishment than soil amendments.

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Claudinei Andreoli and Anwar A Khan

Emergence and stand establishment of pepper and tomato seeds often are slow and erratic, particularly under stress conditions. Field emergence trials sometimes have not responded to priming in pepper. In this study, we examined the combining effect of matriconditioning with GA4+7 to hasten germination and improve stand establishment of pepper and tomato seeds. The results showed that, in all cases, even under stressful conditions, the combined matriconditioning plus GA treatment was effective in improving germination and emergence of pepper and tomato seeds. Emergence was improved in 20% when seeds were treated with GA4+7 up to 200 mM. Thus, matriconditioning during which germination is suspended, provides a unique means to rapidly and efficiently digest the endosperm by GA-induced enzymes and reduce not only the mechanical restraints but also provide the energy for embryo growth.

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Dale N. Seale, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Peter J. Stoffella

Primed, primed + BA, or nontreated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds were sown with several soil amendment covers or a sandy soil cover (control) to assess stand establishment in three field experiments. Seeds covered with amendments Growsorb LVM 24/48, Growsorb 6/30, and plug-mix had a higher percent emergence than soil-covered seeds in warm soil. Primed seeds (with or without BA) had a higher percent emergence than nontreated seeds. Emergence was more rapid with plug-mix, LVM 24/48, and LVM 6/30 covers than with the sandy soil control. Primed seeds with or without BA also emerged more rapidly and produced heavier seedling shoots than nontreated seeds. Using primed lettuce seeds combined with specific soil amendments can improve lettuce stand establishment under various field conditions. Chemical name used: 6-benzyladenine (BA).

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Mark A. Bennett and Luther Waters Jr.

Abstract

Field studies were conducted to examine the effect of increasing the moisture content of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus ‘Kingston 098’) seed prior to planting. Seed moisture was adjusted by combining seed, vermiculite, and varying amounts of water in plastic packets which were then sealed and incubated at 22°C for 3 days. Initial seed moisture ranged from 8% to 56%. Trials were planted at 2 locations in 1981 (Becker and Rochester, Minn.), and at 3 locations in 1982 (Becker, St. Paul and Waseca, Minn.). Seed moisture above the normal 8% to 10% range increased emergence and stand establishment at all locations. As a general trend, increased seed moisture up to about 40% improved percentage of emergence and stand establishment. Harvest data varied between locations. Results from one location in both years showed elevated seed moisture to increase pods per plant, total pod dry weight, and total plant dry weight. Results from harvest (yield) data did not show consistent increases in the variables measured.

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Glen Kaufman

Seeds are coated for ease of handling, singulation, precise placement, and the incorporation of beneficial chemicals or microbials. Coated seeds are accepted widely as a standard product for many crops. Quality demands for seed suitable for coating have improved knowledge of physiological seed quality. Higher, better-defined quality standards in the seed and coating industry, combined with additional quality demand for enhanced seed, will continue to improve stand establishment potential for growers.