Squash silverleaf (SSL) disorder is an economically important physiological disorder affecting squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) throughout the United States, the Caribbean region, and Israel ( Cardoza et al., 1999 ). It is characterized by silvering
Kristen Young and Eileen A. Kabelka
Judy G. Schmalstig and Heather J. McAuslane
Squash silverleaf (SSL) is a physiological disorder of vegetables in the genus Cucurbita L. caused by feeding of nymphs of the silverleaf whitefly (SLW) (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring). SSL causes a silvering of the leaves and a blanching of fruit. Leaf silvering is caused by developmental separation of the upper epidermis and the palisade mesophyll layer resulting in additional air space and altered light reflection. The anatomical development of SSL was analyzed in young leaves of zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) using two susceptible genotypes (`Elite' and YSN347-PMR) and two tolerant genotypes (ZUC76-SLR and ZUC33-SLR/PMR). SLW nymphs were allowed to feed only on the mature leaves and the anatomy of the developing leaves was observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Silvering began at the apex of young leaves and developed basipetally. The increased percentage of air space that resulted between the upper epidermis and palisade layers was the result of an increase in the duration of air space development in young, developing leaves. Chloroplasts in silvered tissue of mature leaves and in tissue of young leaves that later became silvered, were smaller and contained less starch than chloroplasts in tissue from noninfested plants. In contrast, development of genetic silvering, a condition not related to whitefly feeding, occurred throughout the entire leaf at one time, beginning as yellowed tissue in the axils of leaf veins then turning silver. Chloroplasts were normal in genetically silvered tissue of genotype YSN421-PMR. The SSL-tolerant genotype, ZUC76-SLR, did not show alteration in chloroplast structure or air space development when challenged with SLW; however, it had shorter and paler petioles, as did the susceptible genotypes. SSL symptoms were induced with spraying of gibberellic acid synthesis inhibitor chlormequat chloride in SSL-susceptible but not in SSL-tolerant genotypes. Reciprocal grafting between susceptible and tolerant plants showed that tolerance resides in the developing tissue and not the mature tissue on which the whiteflies feed.
Charles A. Powell, Peter J. Stoffella, and Harry S. Paris
Zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) fruit yield and the incidence of sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)], squash silver leaf (SSL) disorder, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were measured during Spring and Fall 1991 in experiments containing various plant populations. In both experiments, as the within-row spacing increased from 30.5 to 76.2 cm or the number of plants per hill decreased from three to one, the number of marketable fruit per hectare decreased, and the marketable fruit per plant increased. Adult SPWF populations increased with decreased within-row spacing in the spring but not the fall experiment. The incidence of SSL or ZYMV infection was not affected by plant population in either experiment. The results indicate that increasing zucchini squash plant population can increase yield without affecting the incidence of SSL or ZYMV.
Harry S. Paris, Peter J. Stoffella, and Charles A. Powell
Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) plants were grown in pots with high (290% capacity) or low (45% to 70% of capacity) soil moisture. The plants were exposed or not exposed to sweetpotato whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). Only the plants exposed to whiteflies developed leaf silvering. Silvering was more severe in plants subjected to low soil moisture.
Cindy L. McKenzie and Joseph P. Albano
squash silverleaf disorder ( Perring et al., 1993 ). Sweetpotato whitefly biotype B is also associated with the appearance of a new crop plant disorder in tomato termed irregular ripening ( McAuslane, 2007 ; Schuster et al., 1990 ). Symptoms of this
James D. McCreight, Hsing-Yeh Liu, and Thomas A. Turini
First report of whitefly-associated squash silverleaf disorder of Cucurbita in Arizona and of white streaking disorder of Brassica species in Arizona and California Plant Dis. 76 426 Brown, J.K. Idris, A.M. Alteri