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Heping Zhu, James Altland, Richard C. Derksen, and Charles R. Krause

either reduced pesticide coverage from less than desirable spray volume or off-target movement of the pesticide because of excessive spray volume. No spray equipment or spray application method currently exists that can apply chemicals to the numerous

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Katherine Bennett, Jared Jent, Uttara C. Samarakoon, Guido Schnabel, and James E. Faust

potted roses, increasing Ca in the nutrient solution resulted in greater Ca in the flower petal tissue and reduced botrytis blight incidence ( Starkey and Pedersen, 1997 ). Two similar studies evaluated preharvest spray applications of calcium sulfate on

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Alex J. Lindsey, Joseph DeFrank, and Zhiqiang Cheng

unaffected by experimental spray applications. The minimum commercially acceptable green color rating was set at 80% for seashore paspalum turf. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for green color ratings was conducted with Statistix (version 10.0; Analytical

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Maedza V. Khathutshelo, Nkomo Mpumelelo, Ngezimana Wonder, and Mudau N. Fhatuwani

determine the effect of selected microelements (B, Fe, Zn, and Cu) on the quality of bush tea. The study was intended to provide the baseline for the foliar spray application of micronutrients to enhance quality of bush tea. Materials and Methods

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Pascal Braekman, Dieter Foqué, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Jan G. Pieters, and David Nuyttens

present-day spray application techniques are insufficient and need to be improved ( Braekman and Sonck, 2008 ). Previous studies already demonstrated that the use of (vertical) spray booms improves spray distribution ( Nuyttens et al., 2004a ) and reduces

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Martin J. Bukovac

The importance of spray application and the role of spray additives are reviewed in reference to increasing the effectiveness of plant growth regulators (PGR). The spray application process is composed of a number of interrelated components, from formulation of the active ingredient into a sprayable, bioactive solution (emulsion/suspension), to atomization, delivery, retention, and penetration into the plant tissue. Each of these events is critical to performance of the PGR. Also, each can be affected by spray additives, particularly adjuvants, which may be incorporated in the formulation of the active ingredient or added to the spray mixture. The role of the individual components and effects of spray adjuvants, particularly surfactants and fertilizer adjuvants, on the component processes are discussed.

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David A. Gilbertz

Spray applications of uniconazole (UC) or paclobutrazol (PB) were applied 0, 2, or 4 weeks after pinching Dendranthema grandiflora (Tzvelev). `Bright Golden Anne' cuttings planted 4 per 15 cm pot. Cuttings were controlled to 3 shoots each, averaging 5.4 and 14.9 cm at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively.

Final height was affected interactively by week of application and chemical treatment. Treatment at pinch caused less stem elongation than later treatments, probably due to persistence of PB and UC activity until flowering. At week 4, 67% of stem elongation had already occurred and, therefore, less retardation was possible. Of the 4 triazole treatments, PB at 30 mg 1-1 (20 ml per pot) applied at pinch produced heights similar to daminozide 5000 mg 1-1 applied at 2 weeks. PB at 60 mg 1-1 gave similar height control as UC 15 mg 1-1. UC 30 mg 1-1 treated plants were shortest regardless of treatment timing, averaging 16.9 cm applied week 2.

Other growth data was pooled for week of application and for chemical treatment since there was no interaction. Flowering was delayd 2 days and flower dry weight was reduced up to 26% by treatment at pinch compared to later treatments. Flower diameter was only minimally affected by treatments.

Open access

Lauren Fessler, Amy Fulcher, Dave Lockwood, Wesley Wright, and Heping Zhu

this research was to characterize spray application of this intelligent spray technology at four spray rates, with the goal of refining spray rate recommendations for tree crops. Materials and Methods An air-assisted trailer sprayer (Model #1000 CS

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Guihong Bi, Carolyn F. Scagel, and Richard Harkess

. Foliar fertilization in the fall is considered an alternative to supplying N to the soil of woody perennial nursery plants. Spray application of urea to deciduous plant species after terminal bud set increases N storage without stimulating new growth or

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Moritz Knoche, Norman K. Lownds, and Martin J. Bukovac

Effect of carrier volume (range 119 to 668 L·ha-1) on dose response relationships of daminozide and GA3 was investigated using bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings as a model system. Carrier volume was varied by altering nozzle travel speed thereby maintaining constant flow rate and droplet size. Response was indexed by inhibition (daminozide) or stimulation (GA3) of elongation of first plus second internodes above primary leaves 14 days after spray application. Increasing dose by increasing concentration and/or increasing carrier volume at constant concentration increased response. For a given dose retained, response to daminozide was related positively to carrier volume, while GA3 response was not affected. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); gibberellic acid (GA3).