Performance testing of natural turfgrass sports fields requires sampling to obtain information on surface properties (e.g., soil moisture, soil compaction, surface hardness, and turfgrass vigor) ( Carrow et al., 2010 ; McAuliffe, 2008 ). Several
Chase M. Straw, Rebecca A. Grubbs, Kevin A. Tucker and Gerald M. Henry
Keisha Rose-Harvey, Kevin J. McInnes and James C. Thomas
Golf putting greens and sports fields that are designed to use a geotextile to retain a sand-based root zone mixture atop a drainage layer are an alternative to the popular design recommended by the U.S. Golf Association (USGA) where the root zone
Paraskevi A. Londra, Maria Psychoyou and John D. Valiantzas
container-grown plants, in roof gardens, and sports fields. Urea–formaldehyde resin foam and its effect on plant growth has been the subject of study as an amendment for soils and organic substrates for several researchers ( Chan and Joyce, 2007 ; Mooney
John C. Stier, Eric J. Koeritz and Mark Garrison
Sports fields are often constructed under short time lines. In the U.S. school system, football seasons last from mid-August to mid-November. Many consultants and contractors like to have 9 to 12 months between seeding a C 3 turfgrass-based field
John L. Cisar, George H. Snyder and Karen E. Williams
For only the second time, the United States will host The International Turfgrass Society's (ITS) International Turfgrass Research Conference (ITRC). The VII ITRC will be held July 18-24, 1993 at The Breakers in Palm Beach, FL. Since its inception, the ITS has been devoted to addressing problems that effect turfgrass and improving the standards of turfgrass science through international communication. The Conference will offer two symposia entitled “Pesticide and Nutrient Fate in Turfgrass Systems” and “Quantification of Surface Characteristics of Sports Fields”. Additionally plenary and volunteered oral and poster presentations on all topics of turfgrass science and related horticultural landscape management tours of the local horticultural industries will be offered. Volunteered papers will be published in a proceedings as either original research papers or as technical papers. Papers submitted as original research will undergo refereed peer review prior to acceptance. See poster for further details or contact authors at above address (phone: 305-475-8990).
Yiwei Jiang, Robert N. Carrow and Ronny R. Duncan
Turfgrasses are often exposed to different shade environments in conjunction with traffic stresses (wear and/or compaction) in athletic fields within stadiums. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of morning shade (AMS) and afternoon shade (PMS) alone and in combination with wear and wear plus soil compaction on `Sea Isle 1 seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz). The study was conducted using two consecutive field trials under sports field conditions from 9 July to 10 Sept. 2001 at the Univ. of Georgia Experiment Station at Griffin. “T” shaped structures constructed of plywood on the sports field were used to provide §90% morning and afternoon shade, respectively, and were in place for 1 year prior to data accumulation. A wear device and a studded roller device simulated turfgrass wear (WD) and wear plus soil compaction (WSC), respectively, to the shaded plots. Only minor differences in turf color, density, or canopy spectral reflectance were found between AMS and PMS under no-traffic treatments in both trials. Grasses under WD generally recovered faster than those exposed to WSC across all light levels, including full sunlight (FL), AMS, and PMS. AMS combined with WD treatment had an average 9% higher rating of color, 11% higher density, and 28% less tissue injury than that of PMS with WD at 7 days after traffic treatment (DAT). Compared to PMS with WSC treatment at 7 DAT, AMS with WSC had 12% higher rating of color, 9% higher density, and 4% less tissue injury. AMS with WD treatment exhibited 11% higher normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 4% higher canopy water band index (CWBI), and 13% lower stress index than that of PMS with WD at 7 DAT. AMS with WSC, relative to PMS with WSC, demonstrated 8% higher NDVI, 3% higher CWBI, and 8% lower stress index at 7 DAT. Re sults indicated that AMS (i.e., afternoon sunlight) had less detrimental influences than PMS (i.e., morning sunlight) on turfgrass performance after it was subjected to wear stress or wear plus soil compaction.
M.D. Richardson and J.W. Boyd
Establishment of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) from sprigs is often impractical for golf courses and sports fields because of the slow growth rate of the species and subsequent long establishment period. A study was conducted at two different sites in Arkansas to evaluate the effects of soil topdressing and post-plant fertility rates on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. Each site was planted according to standard methods using freshly-harvested sprigs (18 m3/ha) and either top dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil or maintained without topdressing. Beginning immediately after establishment, N was applied monthly at rates of 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, or 5.0 g·m-2 as urea. Rate of cover was monitored throughout the growing season and elemental analysis of plant tissues was determined 120 days after planting. Topdressing the sprigs with native soil significantly improved establishment compared to traditional sprigging at both sites, presumably because of enhanced sprig survival. Applications of N during the establishment period had little or no overall effect on establishment, although the 0 g·m-2 rate was slightly inferior to all other rates. This study indicates that methods that enhance sprig survival are more important than added fertility for the rapid establishment of zoysiagrass sprigs.
Takashi Miwa, Hisakazu Kihara and Hideaki Tonogi
Recently, full-green turf on sports fields in the winter is highly desirable. The negative factor for warm-season grass pitch is its winter dormancy. Winter overseeding (WOS) is one successful method to make turf seem green. However, maintenance cost for WOS turf is relatively expensive and brings some difficulties. Undersoil heating (USH) has been used for cool-season grass pitch or warm-season grass pitch to make turf green in winter. Our objectives were 1) to confirm USH effectiveness for warm-season grass, 2) to make the specified system itself, and 3) to estimate the approximate heat demand. The results indicate that USH can make warm-season grass green and maintain much higher turf quality even in severe winter conditions. Weed invasion, pests, and diseases levels are quite low during the test period. The characteristics needed to create the system include heating pipe spacing and depth, initial media temperature, and required soil temperature. In addition, USH needs a plastic cover for insulation that is light and that air and water can penetrate. Compared with WOS, USH can reduce maintenance fees and procedures, such as preparation for WOS in a fall and transition into spring. Thus, UHS can prolong total playing period. Moreover, it is easy to maintain the higher turf quality and lower maintenance cost than WOS. In the future, we should concentrate on creating more concrete maintenance program for this method.
Manuel Chavarria, Benjamin Wherley, James Thomas, Ambika Chandra and Paul Raymer
As population growth places greater pressures on potable water supplies, nonpotable recycled irrigation water is becoming widely used on turfgrass areas including golf courses, sports fields, parks, and lawns. Nonpotable recycled waters often have elevated salinity levels, and therefore turfgrasses must, increasingly, have good salinity tolerance to persist in these environments. This greenhouse study evaluated 10 commonly used cultivars representing warm-season turfgrass species of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.), zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), st. augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze], and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) for their comparative salinity tolerance at electrical conductivity (EC) levels of 2.5 (control), 15, 30, and 45 dS·m–1. Salinity treatments were imposed on the grasses for 10 weeks via subirrigation, followed by a 4-week freshwater recovery period. Attributes, including turf quality, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy firing, and shoot biomass reductions were evaluated before and after salinity stress, as well as after the 4-week freshwater recovery period. Results showed considerable differences in salinity tolerance among the cultivars and species used, with the greatest tolerance to elevated salinity noted within seashore paspalum cultivars and Celebration® bermudagrass. In comparison with growth in 2.5-dS·m–1 control conditions, increased shoot growth and turf quality were noted for many bermudagrass and seashore paspalum cultivars at 15 dS·m–1. However, st. augustinegrass and some zoysiagrass cultivars responded to elevated salinity with decreased growth and turf quality. No cultivars that had been exposed to 30- or 45-dS·m–1 salinity recovered to acceptable levels, although bermudagrass and seashore paspalum recovered to acceptable levels after exposure to 15-dS·m–1 salinity. More severe salinity stress was noted during year 2, which coincided with greater greenhouse temperatures relative to year 1.
J.W. Boyd, M.D. Richardson and J.H. McCalla
Zoysiagass (Zoysia japonica) use continues to expand on golf courses, home lawns, and sports fields in the transition zone. Unfortunately, the slow growth rate of the species and long establishment period have limited its use to those sites that can afford zoysiagrass sod. The development of sprig-planting techniques that can produce a zoysiagrass turf in a single season would considerably increase the use of this desirable species. A study was conducted over 2 years at two different regions in Arkansas to evaluate the efficacy of a new zoysiagrass net-planting technique (ZNET) on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. The technique involves rolling the sprigs onto the site in cotton netting and top-dressing the sprigs with 1.0 cm (0.4 inch) of native soil. This technique was compared to a standard sprig-planting technique and a standard sprig planting that was also top-dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil. The standard treatments were planted according to established methods using freshly-harvested sprigs applied at a rate of 70.0 m3·ha-1 [800 bushels (1000 ft3) per acre]. Rate of turfgrass cover was monitored throughout the growing season. The ZNET planting technique significantly improved establishment over the traditional sprigging technique and the turf reached about 85% cover by the end of the growing season (120 days). Top-dressing a traditionally sprigged area with native soil also improvedestablishment compared to traditional sprigging and was comparable to the ZNET technique. It was concluded that the ZNET technique did improve establishment rates of zoysiagrass, but the same results could be attained by top-dressing sprigs that were planted with a standard planter.