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Yi Zhang, Xiao-Hui Hu, Yu Shi, Zhi-Rong Zou, Fei Yan, Yan-Yan Zhao, Hao Zhang, and Jiu-Zhou Zhao

in promotion of growth, cell division, DNA replication, and protein synthesis ( Roychoudhury et al., 2011 ). In plants, spermidine and spermine (Spm), and their precursor, putrescine (Put), are the major polyamines, acting as second messengers that

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Bin Li, Ting Sang, Lizhong He, Jin Sun, Juan Li, and Shirong Guo

include the higher PAs, spermine (Spm) and spermidine, and their diamine obligate precursor putrescine. In plants, PAs have been implicated in many physiological processes such as organogenesis, embryogenesis, floral initiation and development, leaf

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Xi Shan, Heng Zhou, Ting Sang, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, and Shirong Guo

-PCR) was performed with a SYBR PrimeScript™ RT-PCR Kit (Takara Bio) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Table 1. Effects of high-temperature stress and/or exogenous application of 1 m m spermidine on design of primers for real-time quantitative

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Jing Tian, Li-Ping Wang, Yan-Juan Yang, Jin Sun, and Shi-Rong Guo

spermidine (Spd) on the growth parameters of cucumber seedlings exposed to normal or high temperature stress for 5 d. Polyamine content. The polyamine content after 5 d of treatment is shown in Table 2 , including Put, Spd, and Spm in the free, soluble

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Chang-Xia Du, Huai-Fu Fan, Shi-Rong Guo, and Takafumi Tezuka

exogenous substance might mediate plant tolerance to salt stress. Polyamines (PAs) are low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines that are ubiquitous in all organisms. Common natural PAs include the higher PAs, spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD), and their

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Yingmei Ma and Emily Merewitz

treatment ‘Penncross’ had significantly greater levels of Spm ( Fig. 4F ). Fig. 4. Content of free polyamines in leaves of creeping bentgrass ‘PsgSLTZ’ and ‘Penncross’ under salt stress. Putrescine content in ( A ) Expt. 1 and ( B ) Expt. 2. Spermidine

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George F. Kramer, Chien Yi Wang, and William S. Conway

Abbreviations: CI, chilling injury; PG, endopolygalacturonase; PUT, putrescine; SPD, spermidine; SPN, spermine. We express our gratitude to Frank Liu and Dave for their assistance in obtaining the apples and to Hilarine Repace and George Brown for

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Nanqing Liu, Shaoyan Lin, and Bingru Huang

-watered (W) and drought stress without (D) and with glycine betaine (D + GB) or spermidine (Spd; D + Spd) treatments. Drought stress was imposed on 12 June 2014 (0 d). TQ rated on the scale of 1–9 with 1 = completely desiccated brown turf canopy and 9 = fully

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Yiran Li, Asuka Uchida, Akiha Abe, Akihiro Yamamoto, Tomonari Hirano, and Hisato Kunitake

). The PAs, for example, putrescine (PUT), spermidine, and spermine (SPM), constitute a group of cell components that are precisely regulated. The biosynthesis and metabolism of PAs in plants have been well clarified. The oxidation of PAs can produce

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

Polyamine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine contents were determined during endodormancy in the buds of low-chilling-requiring `Anna' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.). Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine contents increased greatly in buds when their chilling requirement was satisfied. Polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors α -difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) or α -difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) reduced bud break and bud growth in concert with decreased polyamine titers. DFMO or DFMA did not inhibit bud break when it was applied to buds after they received the full chilling requirement. DFMO was more inhibitory than DFMA. The polyamine requirement was much higher for bud growth and bud development than during differentiation and bud break.